The Life of Imam Al-hasan Al-mujtaba

The Followers of Imam Ali (a.s)

Among the most important conditions Imam al-Hasan made against his opponent Mu’awiya is the general security for his followers (Shia) and those of his father. He stipulated that Mu’awiya had not to subject them to evil and detested things. However Ibn Abi Sufyan (Mu’awiya) violated his covenant and did not fulfill it. He regarded as among his most important objectives putting an end to this believing class that believed in the right of Ahl al-Bayt, peace be on them. He went too far in terrifying and exhausting them. He killed many of them and threw many others into dark prisons. The Shia suffered from hard tiredness, ordeals, and misfortunes. I think that no nation faced harm and persecution like that which the followers of Ahl al-Bayt had faced. The most of them in trial, harm, and unhappiness were the people of Kufa, because that Mu’awiya had appointed Ziyad as a governor over them after the death of al-Mughira. Ziyad was aware of them. So he spread among them killing and execution. He killed them everywhere. He cut off their hands and legs. He knocked out their eyes. He crucified them on the trunks of the date palms. He drove them away and made them homeless.[^1]

Mu’awiya sent a note to all his governors. In the note he has mentioned: “Search for whoever it is proved that he loves Ali and his household. Omit him from the divan (register). Cancel his pay and his provision.” Then he sent them another copy in which he has mentioned: “Punish severely those whom you accuse of love for these people (Ahl al-Bayt) and demolish their houses.”

Imam al-Baqir (a.s) talked about the persecutions and the harms which Ahl al-Bayt and their followers suffered during the time of Mu’awiya. He has said: “Our followers (Shia) were killed in all cities. Their hands and legs were cut off out of doubt. Those who loved and devoted themselves to us were imprisoned; their properties were plundered, and their houses were demolished.”[^2]

When Mu’awiya, Hind’s son, became a ruler, a door to oppression and tyranny was opened against the followers of Imam Ali (a.s). They faced political and social problems. They met abasement, torture, and severe punishments to the extent that none can imagine what horribleness and bitterness they faced. Showing love toward Ahl al-Bayt, peace be on them, became as disgrace, shortcoming, sin, and offense. Some Umayyads decided that showing love for Ahl al-Bayt was unbelief, and apostasy from the religion. Al-Kumayt, the poet of Islam, has related this to us, saying:

With their hands, they indicate to me and say: Truly this has become disappointed. However, the indicators are more disappointed. A group (of them) has accused me of unbelief because of the love for you. And another group has said: evil and guilty. They say: His inclination and opinion is Turabi. By that I am called and surnamed among them.[^3]

[^1] Ibn Abi al-Hadeed, Sharh Nahj al-Balagha, vol. 3, p.15. [^2] Ibid., p. 15. [^3] Al-Hashimiyat.

Abu al-Aswad al-Du’ali has said:

I love very much Muhammad, Abbas, Hamza, and the guardians.[^1] I have been given this peerless love since the beginning of Islam. The Prophet’s cousins and his relatives are the most beloved to me.

If love for them is right guidance, then I will get it. If it is error, then I am not mistaken.[^2] Abdullah bin Katheer refuted those who blamed him for his love for the family of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family. He said: I am a man whose defect is because of showing love for the Prophet and not because of any guilt. The children of Abu Hasan (Imam Ali) and their father were good in the wombs and the backbone. Is it a guilt that I love them? Rather, love for them is an expiatory gift.[^3]

After Mu’awiya, the Umayyad and the Abbasid caliphs followed the same policy in oppressing and disrespecting the Shia. If we wanted to deal with the ordeals and misfortunes the Shia met, then we would be in need of a big book. Anyway, the Shia did not pay attention to Mu’awiya’s terrorism, severe punishment, and torture. They sacrificed their lives for their holy religious creed. We will mention some of those whom Mu’awiya unjustly killed, who committed no sin except showing love for Ahl al-Bayt. They are as follows:

Hijr Bin Adiy

Hijr bin Adiy was one the most important Muslim personalities. He was at the head of the companions of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family, in excellence, knowledge, sacredness, asceticism, and worship. He was so obedient to Allah that he always performed the ritual ablution and prayed. He performed one thousand rak’as a day. His supplication was accepted. When he was taken to Mu’awiya as a captive, he became impure on his way to there. He said to the man in charge of him: “Give me the water I drink to purify myself with it.” The man who was in charge of him said to him: “I fear that you would die of thirst if I gave it to you and that Mu’awiya would kill me.” It was difficult for Hijr to be impure. He supplicated Allah to enable him to find some water. Allah responded to him. A cloud came and heavily rained.

[^1] The guardian is (Imam Ali), the Commander of the faithful. [^2] Al-Mubarrad, al-Kamil, p. 545. [^3] Al-Bayan wa al-Tabiyyin, vol. 3, p. 360.

Hijr took his need of the rain.[^1] He had many virtues and glorious deeds. We have to deal with the reason for his martyrdom:

After Imam al-Hasan (a.s) had made peace with Mu’awiya, Hijr kept on his creed and set a record in criticizing the Umayyad blind policy; that policy which threatened the society with serious dangers, revived the pre-Islamic tribalism that Islam had destroyed, demolished qualifications and talents, monopolized authorities, plundered foodstuffs, terrified the people, divided them, made them poor, abased them, enslaved them, and openly committed sins and errors. Hijr and his chosen, believing companions came to know that silence and refraining from criticizing this political policy was nothing but going too far in practicing falsehood, strengthening the forbidden, and making light of the truth. They knew well that it was incumbent on the true Muslim to follow the Sunna of Allah’s Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family, that summoned Muslims to fight against the oppressive, the dictators, and the enemies of peoples.

Indeed Hijr understood Islam, knew its objectives, and was aware of it. He was a pupil in the school of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family. He graduated from the school of Imam Ali. So he condemned Mu’awiya’s falsehood, resisted his oppression and that of his governors, and combated their heresies and their mean desires.

Hijr saw al-Mughira ascending the pulpit in the mosque of Kufa and heard him cursing Imam Ali (a.s), during his speech. He was unable to keep silent. He faced him and criticized him, saying: “Be maintainers of justice, bearers of witness for Allah’s sake. I bear witness that the one you dispraise and revile is worthier of excellence, and the one you praise is worthier of dispraise.”

A group of Hijr’s companions said as he said. So al-Mughira turned to Hijr and said to him: “O Hijr, they have shot me with your arrow (lit. You have provoked them). If I am the governor over you, O Hijr, then beware of the Sultan’s anger; beware of his anger and influence. That is because the Sultan’s anger destroys many people like you.”

Yet Hijr enthusiastically condemned the Umayyad policy. Some mercenaries and adulators suggested to al-Mughira to kill Hijr. However he refused to respond to them, saying: “I dislike to start with the good ones of this city and shed their blood. They will be happy with that, and I shall be unhappy. Mu’awiya will be mighty in the world, and al-Mughira will be low on the Day of Resurrection.”

[^1] Al-Isaba, vol. 1, p. 313.

Al-Mughira’s retinue insisted on him as to the affair of Hijr, so he responded to them with the response of an experienced hypocrite, saying: “I have killed him.”

“How is that?” they asked. He replied: “A governor will come after me. The governor will imprison him as I did. He will do to him something similar to that he does to me. He will take him at first blush and kill him with an evil killing.” Al-Mughira died. After him Ziyad became a governor over Kufa. Hijr criticized him for his crooked plans and intensified his wrath against his terrorist policy. On Friday Ziyad went up on the pulpit. He made a long speech, to the extent that it was too late for prayer. Hijr blamed him for delaying the prayer, saying: “The prayer!”

Ibn Sumayya (Ziyad) did not pay attention to Hijr’s statement nor did he pay attention to the prayer. He went on speaking. Hijr opposed him again raising his voice: “The prayer!” Ziyad paid no attention to Hijr’s blame. He went on making his speech. So Hijr feared that the time of the prayer would pass. He took a handful of stones, and the people who were with him revolted (against Ziyad). When Ziyad saw that, he came down the pulpit and led the people in prayer. He was very angry with Hijr. He decided to punish him severely. He said during the speech he made in the mosque: “I am nothing if I not remove Hijr from the yard of al-Kufa and make him an example for those after him! Woe unto your mother, O Hijr! The evening has made you come across a wolf!” Then he quoted as an example the poet’s speech:

Inform Nusayha that the evening has made the driver of her camels come across a wolf.

Ziyad sent for some eminent, noble Kufans. He ordered them to deter Hijr from his plan. However Hijr refused to respond to them. At last Ziyad commanded the police to bring Hijr to him. The police set out to arrest him. Skirmishes happened between them and Hijr’s companions. The policemen were unable to arrest him, because groups of believers surrounded them. They protected him and his companions from handing them over to Ziyad. Qays bin Fahdan al-Kindi provoked the Kufans. He made speeches in the assemblies and the clubs. He praised Hijr and his companions. He summoned the Muslims to protect and support him. He said to them:

O people of Hijr, defend and assault! Fight on behalf of your brother for an hour! None of you should desert Hijr. Is a spearman, a bowman, a knight, a walker, a striker with the sword not still among you?

Hijr and his companions protected themselves. So Ziyad was unable to arrest them. He was afraid of them, so he gathered the leaders and the children of the houses that the authority used as a means to achieve its aims. He said to them: “O people of Kufa, you attack with one hand and are sorry with another. Your bodies are with me, and your desires are with Hijr, the foolish. You are with me. Your brothers, your children, and your tribes are with Hijr. By Allah, this is of your corruption and deception. By Allah, you should show me your disowning him or I will bring you some people through whom I will straighten your crookedness and deviation.”

They showed obedience and loyalty to him, saying: “We seek refuge in Allah. Glory belongs to Him. We have no opinion other than obedience to you and to the Commander of the faithful (Mu’awiya) or other than pleasing you. Command us to do the things that bring about obedience to you and disobedience to Hijr.”

He said to them: “All of you should rise against this group (of people) around Hijr. Each man of you should summon his brother, son, relatives, and those who obey him from among his tribe, that you may move against him all those you can move.” These rogues spoiled Hijr’s affair and made the people desert him. Ziyad commanded the commander of his police, Shaddad bin al-Haytham al-Hilali, to arrest Hijr and his companions. Then he came to know that the commander of his police was unable to arrest them. So he summoned Muhammad bin al-Ash‘ath al-Kindi[^1] He said to him: “O Abu Maytha’, by Allah, you should bring me Hijr; otherwise, I will uproot your date palms, demolish your house, and cut you into pieces!”

“Give me a time of three (days) that I may arrest him,” retorted Muhammad.

Muhammad bin al-Ash‘ath and the commander of the police followed Hijr and his companions. After some violent encounters that had taken place between the two parties, Ziyad’s policemen were able to arrest Hijr and his companions. They brought them to Ziyad, and he ordered them to be imprisoned. [^1] The mother of Muhammed bin al-Ash‘ath bin Qays al-Kindi was Farwa, sister of Abu Bakr. It was said that Muhammed bin al-Ash‘ath al-Kindi was born during the lifetime of Allah’s Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family. This is incorrect because al-Ash‘ath married Farwa during the caliphate of Abu Bakr. Ibn al-Zubayr appointed Muhammed as a governor over al-Mousil. Al-Mukhtar killed Muhammed in the year 66 A. H. It was said that he killed him in the year 70. This has been mentioned in (the book) Tahdhib al-Tahdhib, vol. 9, p. 64.

Ziyad asked the people of Kufa to bear witness against Hijr and his companions. Some of them bore witness that they (Hijr and his companions) followed Imam Ali, found fault with ‘Uthman, and defamed Mu’awiya. However, Ziyad was not satisfied with this testimony and said: “It is not definite.” Abu Burda bin Abu Musa al-Ash‘ari wrote a testimony whose text is as follows: “This is for which Abu Burda bin Abi Musa al-Ash‘ari has borne witness, for the sake of Allah, the Lord of the worlds. I testify that Hijr bin Adiy has broken obedience, parted with the community, cursed the Caliph, summoned (the people) to war, gathered for himself groups of people and summoned them to break the pledge of allegiance, and disbelieved in Allah with clear unbelief.”

Ziyad was content with this. He ordered the people to sign this testimony. Many people signed it, to the extent that the number of the witnesses was seventy men, as the historians have said. Then he sent the document to Mu’awiya. Mu’awiya commanded Ziyad to send to him Hijr and his companions shackled with iron. Ziyad ordered Hijr and his companions to be sent to Damascus by night, and they were sent. Lamentation occurred, and painful crying rose in Hijr’s house. His only daughter stood on the top of the house. She looked at the people who were walking to death. She saw them off while she was weeping and shedding bitter and sad tears. She was addressing the moon and sending it her sorrows and agony. She was composing out of her ordeal and tribulation some poetry through which one concludes that sadness melted her heart. She recited:

O bright moon, go higher that you may see Hijr walking! He is going to Mu’awiya. Mu’awiya is going to kill him as the governor has claimed. He is going to crucify him on the gate of Damascus. The birds will eat his beauties. The tyrants have become haughty after Hijr; al-Khuwarnaq and al-Sadeer have become good to them.[^1] Truly, O Hijr, Hijr bin Adiy, safety and happiness have received you. I have fear for you of that which destroyed Ali and an old man with moaning in Damascus. [^1] Al-Khuwarnaq and al-Sadeer are two palaces near al-Heera. Al-Nu‘man bin Umru’ al-Qays ordered them to be built. It was said that the reason for building them is that the children of Yazdijir bin Sabur died. So he asked the people about a place with healthy air. They told him that the place was in the outskirts of al-Hira. So he sent his son Bahram to al-Nu‘man to order him to build al-Khuwarnaq, and he built it in twenty years. The builder was a man called Sinmar. This has been mentioned in (the book) Nihayat al-Irab, vol. 1, p. 372.

Would that Hijr died a natural death and was not slaughtered as a camel was slaughtered! If you perish, then every head of a people will perish in the world.[^1] Hijr and his companions arrived at Marjj ‘Adhra’. When Hijr came to know that he was in this village, he said: “By Allah, I am the first Muslim at whom the dogs in this village bark, and I am the first Muslim to exclaim: ‘Allah is great!’”[^2] The postman told Mu’awiya about them. So Mu’awiya became pleased and comfortable. He sent them a one-eyed man and commanded him to execute them if they did not disown and curse Imam Ali (a.s). When the one-eyed man came to them, one of them saw him and predicted, saying: “If the guess was true, half of us would be killed, and the rest would be saved!”

“How is that?” they asked.

“Do you not see that the man coming to you is one-eyed?” came the answer. The executioner came to them. He turned to Hijr and said to him: “The Commander of the faithful (Mu’awiya) has commanded me to kill you any your companions if you do not withdraw from your unbelief, curse your leader and renounce him. You are the head of misguidance, source of unbelief and tyranny, and follower of Abu Turab (Imam Ali).” Hijr along with the righteous group who believed in his faith, set an example for the creed and sacrifice in the way of Allah, said with one tongue: “Surely to be patient toward the punishment with the sword is easier for us than that to do what you say. Then going to Allah, His Prophet, and his (the Prophet’s) guardian is more lovable to us than entering the Fire.”

Half of Hijr’s companions withdrew from their creed, and the other half maintained their creed and their following Imam Ali (a.s), peace be on him. The guess of the one who said that half of them would be killed was true. Then their graves were dug. The executioner beheaded them. It is worth mentioning that Hijr had asked the people for a need dear to him and cheap to them. He said to them: “Let me perform the ritual ablution and pray, for when I perform the ritual ablution, I pray.”

[^1] Al-Mas‘udi, Murujj al-Dhahab, vol. 2, p. 307. It was said that the poetry lines belonged to Hind al-Ansariya, daughter of Zayd. She bewailed Hijr with them. She was a Shi‘ite. [^2] Al-Kamil, vol. 3, p. 192. In his book al-Isaba, Ibn Hajar has mentioned: “Hijr conquered Marjj ‘Adhra’ and was martyred in it.”

They allowed him to do that. Hijr prayed for a long time. After finishing praying, he turned to the people and said to them: “By Allah, I have never said a prayer lighter than this. Were it not for that you would think that I was impatient toward death, I would increase it.” Then Hijr addressed his Lord complaining to Him of this community that handed him over to his cunning enemy, saying: “O Allah, I ask you for help against our community! The people of Kufa bore witness against us, and the people of Sham are going to kill us! By Allah, if you killed me in it (the village), then I would be the first Muslim knight to perish in its valley and the first Muslim at whom the dogs in it would bark.”

The wicked, one-eyed person, Hudba bin Fayyad al-Quda‘i, walked towards Hijr drawing his sword. When Hijr saw him, he shook with fear, and his strength became weak. So the executioner said to him: “You had claimed that you were not impatient with death! Therefore, renounce your leader (Imam Ali), and we will set you free.”

Hijr said to him: “And what reason have I that I should not be impatient while I can see a dug grave, a spread shroud, and a drawn sword? By Allah, if I was impatient with death, I would not say anything to displease the Lord!”[^1] The last words Hijr said were: “Do not remove the iron and the blood from me, for I will meet Mu’awiya on the straight path (on the Day of Resurrection)!”[^2]

The executioner beheaded Hijr. Hijr was placed on the ground as a motionless body and was covered with his blood. He was with six of his companions, who were righteous martyrs. O Hijr, you and your companions are in the protection of Allah! You have gone to the immortal world! You were martyred for the creed and mankind! You are the most wonderful of the unique heroes who revolted against oppression and tyranny, resisted the tyranny of the rulers and the despotism of the unjust!

Hijr’s Companions are martyred for the Creed

Hijr was unjustly martyred. A group of his ideal companions, who sacrificed their valuable lives for their creed and sacred doctrine, was martyred with him and after him. They paid no attention to death. Beliefs are based on these people and the like of them from among the immortal heroes and the great ones in the world. Through them the truth shines, justice spreads, and [^1] Al-Kamil, vol. 3, p. 192. [^2] Al-Isti‘ab, vol. 1, p. 256.

injustice disappears. We will mention their names along with brief accounts on the oppression and torture they met from Mu’awiya and his governors. They are as follows:


Abdurrahman bin Hassaan al-‘Anzi was on top of Hijr’s companions. He was taken with him to Marjj ‘Adhra’. He was shackled with iron. He asked the policemen to let him meet Mu’awiya that he might pardon him. They responded to his request. He was brought to him. When he stood before him, he (Mu’awiya) asked him:

-Say, O brother of Rabee‘a! What do you think of Ali? -Leave me and do not question me. That is better for you. -By Allah, I will not leave you. -I bear witness that he mentioned Allah very much, enjoined the good, maintained justice, and pardoned men.

After this Mu’awiya could find no means through which he deemed shedding his blood as lawful. So he asked him about ‘Uthman’s blood, with which he afflicted the Muslims during his lifetime and after his death: -What do you think about ‘Uthman? -He was the first to open a door to oppression and to close doors to the truth. -You have killed yourself! -Rather you have killed yourself, for (the tribe of) Rabee‘a is in the valley! Abdurrahman thought that his family would intercede for him (with Mu’awiya), and set him free. However, none responded to him. Mu’awiya turned his face away from him. Then he sent to his governor Ziyad a letter in which he mentioned: “This al-‘Anzi is the worst of those you sent (to me). Therefore, punish him with the punishment he deserves and kill him with the worst killing.” When Ziyad received Mu’awiya’s letter, he sent Abdurrahman to Qas al-Natif.[^1] He ordered him to be buried alive, and he was buried alive.[^2]

[^1] Qas al-Natif was a place near Kufa. [^2] Al-Tabari, Tarikh, vol. 6, p. 155.

Sayfi Bin Faseel

Sayfi bin Faseel al-Shaybani was a genius, ideal Muslim hero. He was among Hijr’s good companions. Ziyad was informed against him, and he, the bastard, sent for him. Sayfi stood before Ziyad, and he hurried to ask him about Imam Ali (a.s) (a.s) that he might use that as a means to shed his blood lawfully. He asked him with words dripping rage and anger:

-O enemy of Allah, what do you think of Abu Turab? -I do not know Abu Turab! -You know him more (than I)! -I do not know him! -Do you not know Ali bin Abi Talib? -Yes. -Then that is Abu Turab!

-No, that is Abu al-Hasan and al-Husayn, peace be on them!

The commander of Ziyad’s police turned to Sayfi and criticized him for his statement, that he might seek nearness to Ibn Sumayya (Ziyad). He said to him: “The governor says to you that he is Abu Turab, and you say to him: ‘No’.” Sayfi rebuked him and refuted his speech. He paid no attention to him and his governor. He said to him: “The governor has lied. Do you want me to lie and bear witness falsely just as he has done?”

Ibn Sumayya (Ziyad) became excited and angry, so he said to Sayfi: “This is also of your guilt!” Then he turned towards his policemen and angrily said to them: “Bring me the baton!” The baton was brought to him, and then he turned to Sayfi and asked him: “What do you think of (Imam Ali)?” Sayfi said to him with bravery and faith: “I have said the best statement as to one of the believing servants of Allah!” Ziyad commanded his policemen to strike him on the shoulder so that his shoulder would reach the ground. They severely struck him until his shoulder reached the ground. Then Ziyad commanded them to stop striking him. He (Ziyad) turned to him and asked: “Say, what do you think about Ali?” The hero of the creed (Sayfi) insisted on his faith and said:

-By Allah, if you cut me into pieces with the knives, I would say nothing but that which you had heard from me! -You should curse him or I will behead you! -Therefore, strike my head off, by Allah, before that. If you refused but striking it, then I would be satisfied with Allah, and you would be unhappy! -Push him in the neck! Ziyad ordered Sayfi to be shackled with iron and to be thrown into a dark prison.[^1] Then he sent him with Hijr to Marjj ‘Adhra’, and he was martyred with him there.

Qubaysa Bin Rabee‘a

Among Hijr’s companions whom Ziyad exhausted was Qubaysa bin Rabee‘a al-‘Absi. Ziyad sent the commander of his police, Shaddad bin al-Haytham, to arrest Qubaysa. Shaddad secretly attacked Qubaysa. When the latter came to know of that, he took his sword and defended himself. A group of his people helped him. So the commander of the police said to him with deception: “You are safe as to your blood and your property. So why are you going to kill yourself?”

When his companions heard of that, they were deceived. So they did not defend nor did they save him. That is because their fear of Ziyad’s authority was greater in effect in themselves than the danger of death. They said to him: “You are safe! So why do you want to kill yourself and us with you?” Qubaysa did not yield to his companions’ statement. He had come to know that the Umayyads were treacherous, that they fulfilled neither a covenant nor a promise. He said to them: “Woe unto you! By Allah, if fell into the hands of this bastard, son of the prostitute (Ziyad), I would not escape from his hand, he would kill me!”

“No!” they retorted.

When Qubaysa found no escape from that, he put his hand in their hands, and they took him as a captive to Ziyad. Qubaysa stood before Ziyad, and he said to him: “By Allah, I will distract you from making troubles and attacking the commanders!” “I have not come to you but according to that you have given me security!” said Qubaysa

[^1] Al-Tabari, Tarikh, , vol. 4, p. 197, Al-Kamil, vol. 3, p. 139. “Take him to prison!” commanded Ziyad.[^1]

Ziyad violated the security and broke the covenant. Then he ordered him to be taken with Hijr and his companions to Marjj ‘Adhra’. So Qubaysa was taken with them. When he arrived in his house at Jabana (‘Urzum), he looked at it. He saw his daughters standing on the top of the house and looking at him. They were scratching their faces, weeping and supplicating. The misfortune controlled them, and sorrow tore their hearts. When Qubaysa saw that terrible scene, he asked the policemen in charge of him to let him approach his daughters to advice them to follow what he wanted. They allowed him to do that. When he approached them, they cried loudly. He ordered them to keep silent and be patient. He gave them a piece of advice that represented faith and satisfaction with Allah’s decree. He said to them: “Fear Allah, the Great and Almighty. Be patient. During this departure of mine I hope that my Lord will grant me one of two most excellent things; either martyrdom or the return to you safely. The One Who provides me and suffices me your provision is Allah, the Most High. He is living and does not die. I hope that He will not lose you and that He will protect me for you.”

Then he said farewell to them and went away. When those with him saw that his daughters were sad and terrified, they felt pity for him. Then they raised their hands to invoke Allah, the Exalted, for him. They asked Allah to grant Qubaysa wellbeing and safety. Qubaysa said to them: “The condition in which I am is equal in danger to the destruction of my people who did not support me.”[^2]

By that he meant that his people did not support him, they desert him, and that was greater in effect on him than his death. Qubaysa went with Hijr to Marjj ‘Adhra and was martyred with him there. As for the rest of Hijr’s companions who were martyred with him, we have found no enough information about them. However we will mention their names as follows:

Shurayk bin Shaddad al-Hadrami. Kaddam bin Hayyan al-‘Anzi. Muhriz bin Shihab al-Tamimi.

These protectors, who sacrificed their lives for the creed and the truth, were good, righteous Muslims. The Umayyad authorities drove them to the field of execution. They regarded shedding their blood as lawful not because of a guilt they had committed, but because of their love for the pure family (of the

[^1] Al-Tabari, Tarikh, vol. 6, p. 149. [^2] Al-Tabari, Tarikh, vol. 6, p. 149.

Prophet), who is equal to the Holy Qur’an in that it is obligatory to take care of them and to show love to them.

The Echo of the Disaster

The Muslims were terrified by this dangerous incidence, and displeasure spread throughout the country, for Hijr was one of the eminent, Muslim figures and among the good companions of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family. Through his murder the sacredness of Islam was violated, for he made no mischief in the land; rather, he saw something forbidden, and he combated it. He saw injustice, and he resisted it. He saw that Ziyad delay the prayer, and he demanded him to perform it. He saw him curse Imam Ali (a.s), and he demanded him to refrain from that. He was martyred for that. So the remarkable personalities in the Islamic world hurried to announce their displeasure with Mu’awiya and to condemn him for that. It is good to mention some of them and listen to their criticisms. They are as follows:

Imam al-Husayn

From Yathrib Imam al-Husayn wrote Mu’awiya a letter in which he condemned him severely for his killing Hijr and his pious companions. This is the text of the letter: “Are you not the one who killed Hijr, brother (a member of the tribe) of Kinda, (and his companions) those who prayed, the worshipers who condemned oppression, regarded as great the heresies, and did not fear, in Allah, the censure of any censurer? You unjustly killed them out of aggression after your giving them a strong oath and sure covenants that you would not punish them according to an incident (that had happened) between you and them nor according to malice you had harbored against them.”[^1]

In his letter Imam al-Husayn condemned Mu’awiya for his regarding as lawful shedding the blood of Hijr and his ideal companions, who condemned oppression, combated tyranny, and regarded as great the heresies. He unjustly killed them out of aggression after putting himself under obligation and giving covenants to them that he would not punish them because of an incident and past malice. However Mu’awiya, son of Hind, broke that promise and did not fulfill it.


‘A’isha, the Prophet’s wife, was among those who condemned Mu’awiya for killing Hijr. That was when Mu’awiya came in to here after his performing the hajj. She said to him: “Do you feel secure that I have not hidden anyone to kill you?”

[^1] Bihar al-Anwar, vol.10, p.149.

He said to her with cunning: “I have entered the house of security!” “Did you not fear Allah as to (the murder of) Hijr and his companions?” asked A’isha.[^1]

She always talked about the murder of Hijr. She narrated what she had heard from Allah’s Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family, regarding Hijr’s excellence, saying: “I heard Allah’s Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family, say: ‘Some people will be killed in (Marj) ‘Adhra’. Allah and the inhabitants of the heaven will be angry for them.’”[^2] She condemned the people of Kufa, saying: “By Allah, if Mu’awiya had come to know that the people had strength, he would not have dared to take Hijr and his companions from among them to kill them in Sham. However, Mu’awiya son of the woman who ate Hamza’s liver, came to know that the people passed away. By Allah, they (Hijr and his companions) were glory, power, and jurisprudence for the Arabs. How good Labeed was when he said:

‘Those under whose wings I lived passed away. I have remained among the successors who are like the skin of the mangy. They do not benefit (me) nor do I hope for their good. Their sayer is blamed even if he makes no trouble.’[^3]

Al-Rabee‘ Bin Ziyad

Among those who condemned Mu’awiya was al-Rabee‘ bin Ziyad al-Basri[^4] , his governor over Khurasan. When he heard of the painful news, he lost his mind. He deeply sighed and said with sadness: “The Arabs are still killed unjustly after him (after the murder of Hijr). If they had revolted when he was killed, none of them would have been killed unjustly. They kept silent, so they became abased.”

[^1] Al-Tabari, Tarikh, vol. 6, p. 156. [^2] Al-Bidaya wa al-Nihaya, vol. 8, p. 55. Al-Isaba, vol. 1, p. 314. [^3] l-Isti‘ab, vol. 1, p. 357.

[^4] Al-Rabee‘ bin Ziyad bin Anas al-Harithi, al-Basri was Mo’awiya’s governor over Khurasan. His scribe was al-Hasan al-Basri. He (al-Rabee‘) narrated (traditions) on the authority of Ubay bin Ka‘ab and on the authority of a group (of traditionists). Some people narrated (traditions) on his authority. Al-Rabee‘ died in the year 51 A. H. This has been mentioned in (the book) Tahdhib al-Tahdhib, vol. 3, p. 43. In (the book) al-Isaba, it has been mentioned: “Al-Rabee‘ came to ‘Umar and said to him: ‘O Commander of the faithful, by Allah, you appointed over this community nothing except an affliction with which it has been afflicted. If a ewe got lost on the bank of the Euphrates, you would be questioned about it on the Day of the Resurrection.’ So ‘Umar wept when he heard this speech from him.”