The Life of Imam Al-hasan Al-mujtaba
Terrorism and Arresting
Mu’awiya spread fear and terrorism among the Shia. He imprisoned some of them for life and terrorized some of them, to the extent that they left their homelands and wandered aimlessly in the lands; fear and terror pursued them. His police arrested many of them. They brought them guarded to him, and he mocked at them, made light of, and disrespected them. We will mention their names along with the persecutions they met. They are as follows:
[^1] Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 10. p. 102. [^2] ‘Ayan al-Shia, vol. 4, p. 46. [^3] Ibn Abi al-Hadeed, Sharh Nahj al-Balagha, vol. 3, p. 15.
1. Muhammad Bin Abi Hudhayfa
Muhammad bin Abi Hudhayfa was on the top of the trustworthy, righteous Muslims. He was among those who enjoined the good and forbade the evil. Regarding him Imam Ali (a.s) said: “The Muhammads (persons whose names are Muhammad) refuse that Allah is disobeyed.” Then he numbered him as one of them. Muhammad accompanied and served Imam Ali (a.s). When Imam Ali was martyred, Mu’awiya wanted to kill Muhammad. Then it seemed to him that he had to imprison him, and he imprisoned him for a long time. One day he turned to his companions and said to them: “Shall I send for this foolish (person), Muhammad bin Abi Hudhayfa to rebuke him, to tell him about his error, and to command him to curse Ali?” They agreed with him on that. Then he ordered him to be brought. Muhammad stood before Mu’awiya, and he said to him: “O Muhammad, has not the time yet come for you that you may see the error you follow through your supporting Ali bin Abi Talib? Did you not know that ‘Uthman was unjustly killed, that ‘A’isha, Talha, and al-Zubayr revolted (against Ali) to avenge his blood, that it was Ali who urged the people to kill him, and that we will avenge his blood today?”
Muhammad answered him: “Surely you know that I am the closest of the people to you in kinship and the most aware about you?” “Yes,” Mu’awiya answered.
Muhammad Said: “By Allah other than Whom there is no god, I do not know anyone other than you that took part in shedding ‘Uthman’s blood and provoked the people against him. That was when ‘Uthman appointed you and those who were like you as governors. The Muhajireen and the Ansar asked him to remove you from office. However he refused that. So they did to him that which reached you. By Allah, none took part in killing him at the beginning and end except Talha, al-Zubayr, and ‘A’isha, for it was they who bore witness against him and provoked the people against him. Abdurrahman bin ‘Awf, Ibn Mas‘ud, ‘Ammar, and all the Ansar shared them in that.”
Mu’awiya became frightened, so he criticized Muhammad for that, saying: “Did that happen?”
“Yes, by Allah,” replied Muhammad, “surely I bear witness that you have only one manner since I have known you in the pre-Islamic period and Islam. Islam has increased you nothing. The sign of that in you is clear. It is that you blame me for the love for Ali. All those who prayed and fasted, the Muhajireen, and the Ansar went out with (Imam) Ali (to fight against you). The children of the hypocrites, the released (prisoners of war), and the emancipated went out with you (to fight against them). You deceived them as to their religion, and they deceived you as to your present life. By Allah, O Mu’awiya, what you did is not hidden to you, and what they did is not hidden to them. They displeased Allah through obeying you. By Allah, I still love Ali for Allah and His Apostle. I hate you for Allah and His Apostle forever, as long as I remain alive.”
Mu’awiya became afraid, so he said: “I see that you are still in your (old) error. Send him back to prison!” The police sent Muhammad back to prison, and he remained there until he died.[^1]
Muhammad died while he was terrified in the dark prisons, just because he did not accept Mu’awiya’s evil deeds. Such was the fate of those free and noble who opposed Mu’awiya’s government. They met torture, exemplary punishments, and life imprisonment.
2. Abdullah Bin Hashim al-Mirqal
Among the leaders of the Shia and their great figures whom Mu’awiya terrorized was the ideal leader Abdullah bin Hashim al-Mirqal. Mu’awiya harbored malice against him because of his obedience and loyalty to Imam Ali (a.s) and because of his father’s attitude at the Battle of Siffin; that immortal attitude which feared and terrified Mu’awiya to the extent that he decided to escape. For this reason Mu’awiya wanted to quench his thirst for revenge on him. He wrote his governor Ziyad a letter in which he commanded him to arrest Abdullah and punish him severely. This is the text of his letter: “Search for Abdullah bin Hashim bin ‘Uttba. Tie his hands to his neck, and then send him to me.”
When Ziyad received Mu’awiya’s letter, he looked for Abdullah. However when Abdullah came to know of that, he escaped and hid. A rogue knew his place of hiding and went to Mu’awiya to seek nearness to him through that. The rogue told Mu’awiya that Abdullah had hidden in the house of a woman called al-Makhzumiyya. Accordingly, Mu’awiya wrote Ziyad the following: “When this letter of mine comes to you, go to the district of Banu Makhzum. Search it house by house until you reach the house of the woman called al-Makhzumiya. Take Abdullah bin Hashim al-Mirqal out of it. Have his hair cut, clothe him in a hair jubbah, shackle him, tie his hands to his neck, carry him on a camel without a cover, and send him to me.”
Ziyad searched the district of Banu Makhzum until he found Abdullah. He sent him to Mu’awiya in the manner he wanted. Abdullah arrived in Damascus on Friday, the day of reception Mu’awiya had appointed to receive [^1] Al-Kashi, Rijal, p. 47.
the Qurayshi noblemen and the Iraqi dignitaries. Hashim suddenly came in to Mu’awiya. The latter recognized the former. However Amr bin al-‘Aas did not recognize him. Mu’awiya turned to him and said: “O Abu Abdullah, do you know this young man?” “No,” replied Amr. Mu’awiya said: “This is the person whose father said at the Battle of Siffin:
‘Surely I sacrificed my life when he claimed and blamed much. (He is) one-eyed and he seeks a position for his people. He treated the life until he became tired. There was no escape from that he would defeat (them) or would be defeated. I will fully undermine them with a spear. The noble man who turns away is not good in my opinion.’ Amr bin al-‘Aas was astonished, so he quoted as an example: “The pasture may grow in the dung of soil, and the spites of souls last as they are!” Amr bin al-‘Aas remembered the attitude of Abdullah’s father at the Battle of Siffin. He said to Mu’awiya: “O Commander of the faithful, take this malicious (person) who shed blood. Cut his jugular veins and make his blood flow on the upper parts of his back. Do not repatriate him to the people of Iraq, for he is not patient toward hypocrisy. They (the Iraqis) are men of treachery and discord. They are the party that Iblis has prepared for the day of his excitement. He (Abdullah) has an inclination that will ruin him, an opinion that will make him a tyrant, and retinue that will make him powerful. And an evil deed is for an evil deed!”
Abdullah opposed him as if he was an angry lion. He aimed at him an arrow of speech. He paid no attention to him, saying: “O Amr, if I was killed, then I would be a man whose people deserted him and whose death came. Why did you not show that when you swerved from fighting (against us)? We summoned you to fight against us while you resorted to the north…as if you were a black bondmaid and a led ewe! You did not push the hand of a toucher!”
Amr bin al-‘Aas burnt with grief. He could not say anything except that he threatened him, saying: “By Allah, you have fallen in the canine teeth of the one who is like a lion with mane toward his equals! I think that you will not escape from the hands of the Commander of the faithful!” As for Hashim, he paid no attention to Amr’s threat. He answered him, saying: “By Allah, O (Amr) bin al-‘Aas, you are ingratitude during welfare,
cowardly during meeting (in war), unjust when you are appointed as governor, and fearful when you meet (the heroes). You roar as does the stick upside-down, limited in the path of thorns, to which none in the period (of time) hurries and for which none hopes in hardship. Why did you not show that when you was fought by the people who were not rebuked when young nor were they defamed when old, who had strong hands and sharp tongues, who straightened the crookedness, took away the criticality, increased the little, satisfied the thirst (for revenge), and supported the weak?” Amr bin al-‘Aas was unable to answer. He looked for a defect in the bag of his cunning to brand Abdullah with it. He found nothing except fabricating lies, saying: “Verily, by Allah, I saw then your father’s bowels beat, his intestines gurgle, and the middle of his back shake.”
Abdullah refuted his slander and lying, saying to him: “O Amr, we have tried you and your statement. So we have found that your tongue is lying and treacherous, that you have been alone with the people who do not know you and with the troops who do not bargain with you. If you wanted to talk with (some people) other than the people of Sham, you would come to know that you had a bad opinion, your tongue would stammer, and your two thighs would shake as if you were a young camel whose load burdened.”
Mu’awiya turned to them and interrupted their speech, saying: “Stop!” Then he ordered Abdullah to be released. Amr bin al-‘Aas became displeased with this pardon. He provoked Mu’awiya to kill Abdullah. He reminded him of the attitude of Abdullah’s father at the Battle of Siffin. Then he recited some poetry about that:
I commanded you with a strict command, but you disobeyed me. It was an act of success to kill (Abdullah) bin Hashim. O Mu’awiya, did his father not help Ali on the day when he cut the throats? He did not turn away (from us) until our blood flowed in Siffin as if it was seas full of water. This is his son, and man resembles his father. The tooth of a repentant is about to be knocked by him. Abdullah answered him:
O Mu’awiya, surely the man ‘Amr, who has harbored malice, is not sleeping. He sees that you, O Hind’s son, have to kill me. He only sees what Amr and the kings of the non-Arabs see. But they do not kill their captive when the covenants of the peaceful protect him. Some of those events passed. What passed and what happened were nothing but confused dreams. If you pardoned me, then you would pardon your relative. If you thought that you had to kill me, then you would regard the forbidden as to me as something lawful.
I think that Ali’s pardon toward Quraysh is a means to Allah on the critical, distressful day. I do not think that the murder of the enemy (Abdullah) bin Hashim takes my revenge (on him) as to Lu’ay and Aamir. Rather I pardon him after that his guilt has become manifest and one of the bad lucks has caused him to slip. His father was violent to us at the Battle of Siffin. So some long spears ruined him.[^1] Mu’awiya terrorized Abdullah while he had committed no sin except his obedience to Imam Ali (a.s). He regarded such an act of obedience as among the major sins. Some books have mentioned that Mu’awiya did not pardon Abdullah; rather he imprisoned him in a dark prison.
3. Abdullah Bin Khalifa al-Ta’iy
Abdullah bin Khalifa al-Ta’iy was among those who were famous for their obedience and loyalty to Imam Ali (a.s). He came to the Imam when he (a.s) headed for Basra and said to him: “Praise belongs to Allah, Who has returned the right to its men and placed it in its place. If some people hated that, they, by Allah, hated Muhammad, may Allah bless him and his family, opposed him, and fought against him. Allah averted their strategy against them and placed the evil calamity on them. By Allah, I will struggle with you in all the places to keep the right of Allah’s Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family.”[^2]
His speech indicates that he fully understood his religion, and indicates that his origin was good, his opinion was excellent, his faith was great, his reason was abundant, that he was among the close companions of the Imam, and one of those the Imam consulted as to his important affairs.[^3]
[^1] Al-Mas‘udi, Murujj al-Dhahab, vol. 2, pp. 312-314. Ibn Abi al-Hadeed, Sharh Nahj al-Balagha. [^2] Al-Fawa’id, p. 202. [^3] Al-Fawa’id, p. 202..
During Hijr’s ordeal, Abdullah bin Khalifa was on top of his companions and among those who opposed the Umayyad policy and one of those who took part in his revolt (against the Umayyads). When Ziyad captured Hijr and his companions, he commanded his police to bring Abdullah to him. The policemen searched for him and found him. However Abdullah fought against them. After the battle that took place between them, Abdullah was unable to save himself from them. They captured him. His sister al-Nawar sought the help of her people and her family. She asked them to help her brother, saying: “O People of Tay, will you hand over your spearhead and your tongue, Abdullah bin Khalifa, (to the Umayyads)?”
Banu Tay revolted against the policemen. They fought against them until they saved Abdullah from them. The policemen returned to Ziyad and told him about what happened. Ziyad summoned Adiy bin Hatim, the leader of the Banu Tay. He said to him: “Bring me Abdullah bin Khalifa!” After a speech had occurred between them, Adiy answered him with the speech of the free, saying: “No! By Allah, I will never bring him to you! Shall I bring my cousin to you to kill him? By Allah, if he was under these feet of mine, I would not raise them from him!”
Accordingly, Ziyad burnt with grief. He ordered Adiy to be imprisoned. The people from Yemen and Rabee‘a in Kufa came to Ziyad and talked to him as to the affair of Adiy. They told him about his great position and honor. Ziyad was forced to release him. However he stipulated that he had to take away his cousin from Kufa. Adiy accepted that and ordered Abdullah to leave Kufa. Abdullah felt severe pain because of that he would be far from his homeland and would leave his companions and family. After he had been exiled, he sent Adiy his poem called al-‘Asma in which he elegized Hijr and his companions and in which he mentioned his painful separation. He elegized Hijr, saying:
In it[^1] Hijr met mercy from Allah. Hijr had pleased Allah and apologized (to Him). It still heavily and lightly rains on Hijr’s grave…
Abdullah went on elegizing Hijr. He mentioned his qualities and talents. He wept for him. Then he ended his poem with a description of his ordeal, his misfortune, pain, and sadness he met in his exile. He said:
As for me, I live in the mountains of Tay as one driven away. If Allah willed, He would change that. My enemy unjustly banished me from my homeland. I am satisfied with what Allah has willed and decreed. [^1] The pronoun ‘it’ stands for Marj Athra’.
My people have deserted me as if they were not my tribe and people.
Al-Tabari and Ibn al-Athir have mentioned the rest of the poem in which he expressed his sorrows and sadness. Anyway Abdullah remained exiled until he died between the two mountains before the death of Ziyad.[^1]
4. Sa‘sa‘a Bin Souhan
Sa‘sa‘a bin Souhan was among the masters of the Arabs, their discerning ones, and eloquent orators. He was one of the men of virtue and religion. He became Muslim when he was still young at the time of Allah’s Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family. He came to ‘Umar while he was dividing among the Muslims booties estimated at a million dirhams. ‘Umar divided the booty among the Muslims and there was a remainder. The Prophet’s companions differed over the remainder. Umar stood up among them and said: “O people, you still have a remainder after (we have appointed) the people’s rights. What is your view as to it?”
Sa‘sa‘a criticized Umar for his perplexity in this simple problem. He said to him: “O Commander of the faithful, you should consult the people only about that which Allah has revealed a verse. As for that which Allah has revealed a verse and which He has placed in its places, then put it in its places where Allah, the Most High, has placed.” ‘Umar approved his viewpoint and said to him: “You are right! You belong to me and I belong to you!” Then he divided the property among the Muslims.[^2]
Sa‘sa‘a was among the choice companions of Imam Ali (a.s), and among those who associated with him. About him Imam al-Sadiq (a.s) said: “None of those who knew the right of the Commander of the faithful, (Imam Ali), was with him except Sa‘sa‘a and his companions. Sa‘sa‘a fell ill, so Imam Ali (a.s) visited him and said:
-O Sa‘sa‘a, do not regard my visit to you as pomp over your people. -Rather, by Allah, I regard it as kindness and favor from Allah toward me. -If you were as I knew you, then you were light in provisions and good in help.[^3] As Sa‘sa‘a was prudent in opinion and correct in speech, Imam Ali (a.s), sent him to carry out his tasks. One day he sent him with a letter to Mu’awiya.
[^1] Al-Tabari, vol. 6, p. 157. Al-Kamil, vol. 3, p. 241. [^2] Al-Isti‘ab, vol. 2, p. 189. [^3] Al-Ta‘liqat.
Sa‘sa‘a reached Mu’awiya, who he praised himself and justified his acts, saying: “The earth belongs to Allah. I am the vicegerent of Allah. Therefore, if I take something of Allah’s wealth, then it belongs to me. If I leave it, then it is permissible for me (to leave it).” This crooked speech was difficult to Sa‘sa‘a, so he denied it, saying: Your self makes you desire for that which does not belong to you out of ignorance. O Mu’awiya, you do not shun sin. Mu’awiya felt pain, so he censured him, saying:
-Have you learned to speek?
-Knowledge is (acquired) through learning. Whoever does not learn is ignorant. -You are in deed of that I have to make you taste the evil result of your conduct! -That is not through your hand. That is through the hand of Him Who dose not delay a soul when its appointed time comes. -Who intervenes between you and me? -He Who intervenes between man and his heart. -Is your belly wide enough for speaking as the camel’s belly is wide enough for barely? -Is the belly of the one who does not become full wide enough, and he who does not gather invokes (Allah) against him?[^1] This debate indicates that Sa‘sa‘a had a strong heart, and that he was neither cowardly nor fearful. He refuted Mu’awiya’s statement and made light of him. He was not afraid of his authority.
When Mu’awiya became a ruler, he made a speech. Sa‘sa‘a stood up and commented on each sentence of his speech. The following is Mu’awiya’s speech along with Sa‘sa‘a’s answers to it:
-If Abu Sufyan begot all the people, they would be sane. -Adam, who was better than Abu Sufyan, begot all people. Yet some of them are foolish, and some are sane. [^1] Al-Mas‘udi, Murujj al-Dhahab, vol. 2, p. 342.
-Surely our land is close to the pace of gathering together. -Surely the pace of gathering together is not far from the believer nor is it close to the unbeliever. -Surely our land is sacred. -Surely nothing makes the earth sacred and nothing makes it impure; but deeds make it sacred. -Allah’s servants have taken Allah as a guardian and His vicegerents as a shield to protect themselves with it. -How is that while you have canceled the Sunna, violated the covenant, and it has become random, intense, and gloomy, that the events have encompassed it, and the perfidious are capable of it? Mu’awiya became excited, so he shouted at him:
-O Sa‘sa‘a, if you fell on your rib, it would be better for you than justifying your opinions and showing your weakness. You hinted at al-Hasan while I intended to send for him. Sa‘sa‘a answered him, saying:
-Yes, by Allah, I have found that they are the noblest of you in grandfathers, greatest of you in giving life to the laws (stipulated in the Qur’an), and greatest of you in fulfilling covenants. If you sent for him (al-Hasan), you would find that he was polite in opinion, firm in command, an excellent in generosity, that he would hurt you with his sharp tongue, and knock you with that which you could not deny. Sa‘sa‘a hurt Mu’awiya with his words, and he threatened him, saying:
-I will make you find no sleep and make you homeless in the country. -By Allah, there is an ease in the earth and comfort in parting with you. -By Allah, I will seize your pay. -If that was in your hand, then do it. Surely giving and favors are in the Kingdom of Him Whose treasures do not run out, Whose giving does not end, and Who does not wrong as to His affair. -You have risked your life! -Slowly! I have said nothing with ignorance nor have I regarded killing as lawful. And do not kill the soul which Allah has forbidden except for the requirements of justice.[^1] He who is unjustly killed, Allah will be permanent to his murderer; He will painfully exhaust him, make him drink boiling water, and make him enter hell.[^2]
Sa‘sa‘a went away. He made Mu’awiya burst with rage and grief. After that Mu’awiya imprisoned Sa‘sa‘a along with a group of his companions. They were in prison for a long time. Then Mu’awiya came to them and said: “I adjure you before Allah to say truly. Which of the caliphs you have seen me?”
Abdullah bin al-Kawwa’ answered him, saying: “Were it not for that you adjured us before Allah, we would not say (anything). That is because you are a stubborn tyrant. You do not fear Allah as to killing the good people. However we say: ‘We have come to know that you are wide in the world, narrow in the hereafter, close to the earth, and far from the pasture. You change darkness into light, and light into darkness.’”
So Mu’awiya said to him: “Surely Allah has honored this affair through the people of Sham, who defend His entity, refrain from the things made forbidden by Him. They are not like the people of Iraq, who violate the things made forbidden by Allah, make lawful what Allah has forbidden, and make unlawful what Allah has made lawful.” Ibn Al-Kawwa’ answered him: “Surely there is an answer to each speech. We are afraid of your tyranny. If you set free our tongues, we would defend the people of Iraq with sharp tongues that do not fear, in Allah, the censure of any censurer. Otherwise, we will be patient until Allah judges and relieves us.”
Mu’awiya said to him: “No, by Allah, I will not set free your tongue!” Abdullah kept silent, and then Sa‘sa‘a said: “O son of Abi Sufyan, you spoke and exaggerated. You did not fall short of what you wanted. The affair is not as you have mentioned. The caliph is not the one who controls the people by force, makes them follow him with arrogance, seizes power through false means (using) lying and cunning. By Allah, at the Battle of Badr you had neither a large tent nor a target. You were not at it … You and your father were in war and among those who fought against Allah’s Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family. You are a released, (prisoner of war) son of a released one that Allah’s Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family, had released you. Therefore, how is it appropriate for a released (prisoner of war) to be a caliph?”
[^1] Qur’an, 6, 151. [^2] Ibn ‘Asakir, Tarikh, vol. 6, p. 425.
Mu’awiya’s heart was full of rage and anger, so he turned to them and said: Where it not for that I resort to the speech of Abi Talib, who said: “I return their ignorance with clemency and forgiveness. Pardon out of power is a kind of generosity,” I would kill you.[^1] Sa‘sa‘a was among the persons for whom Imam al-Hasan asked Mu’awiya to give security and to subject to neither evil nor detested things.[^2] However Mu’awiya did not fulfill that. He terrified and terrorized him and imprisoned him in his prison just as he terrorized and imprisoned other Shiite leaders. Some books have mentioned that al-Mughira banished Sa‘sa‘a to al-Jazirah or to Bahrain or to the Island of Ibn Kafan according to Mu’awiya’s command. Sa‘sa‘a died there while he was imprisoned and banished from his homeland and country.
5. Adiy Bin Hatim
Adiy bin Hatim was among the most important, remarkable, unique personalities in Iraq. Before Islam he enjoyed original glory and deep-rooted honor. He was the son of Hatim al-Ta‘iy, who was cited as an example for generosity and munificence. In addition to his inherited glory, he was, in Islam, among the heroes of the creed, the eminent believers and the prominent men of Islam. In the footnote of the book we have mentioned an outline of his biography. The most important thing is that we have to deal with the humiliation and scorn he met from Mu’awiya, just because he was obedient and loyal to Imam Ali (a.s), peace be on him. One day Adiy came in to Mu’awiya, and he gloated over him, saying:
-What did al-Turufat[^3] do? -They were killed with Ali. -Ali did not treat you with justice. He killed your sons and kept his sons. -Ali did not treat you with justice. That is because he was killed, and you have remained alive after him.
Mu’awiya felt pain because of Adiy’s statement. He threatened him, saying: “A drop of ‘Uthman’s blood has remained. Nothing will remove it except the blood of a noble one from among the nobles of Yemen.” By that he meant Adiy.
[^1] Al-Mas‘udi, Murujj al-Dhahab, vol. 2, p. 341. [^2] Al-Kashi, Rijal, p. 46. [^3] Al-Turufat were ‘Adi’s sons. They were Tareef, Taarif, and Turfa.
Adiy denied him. He paid no attention to his threat. He said to him: “By Allah, our hearts through which we have detest you are still in our chests, and our swords with which we fought you are still on our shoulders. If you approached to us a small span of treachery, we would approach to you a span of the hand, and that the cutting of the throat and the rattle in the middle of the chest is easier to us than that we hear you wrong (Imam) Ali. Therefore, O Mu’awiya, hand over the sword to the one who sent the sword.”
Mu’awiya dodged as usual and said: “These are the words of judgment; therefore, write them down.” Then he turned to him to talk with him as if he had not addressed him with anything.[^1] Then he said to him:
-Describe Ali to me. -I think you have to exempt me from that. -I will not exempt you.
So Adiy began describing Imam Ali saying: “By Allah, he (Imam Ali) was far in range and strong in abilities. He said justly and gave definite judgments. Wisdom gushed out of his sides and knowledge gushed out of his directions. He felt an aversion for the world and liked night and its calmness. By Allah, he was ample in tear and long in thinking. He reckoned himself when he was alone with himself. He turned his palms of the hand for the past. Short clothes and coarse life appealed to him. He was among us as if he was like one of us. He answered us when we questioned him. He approached us to him when we came to him. We, in spite of his approaching us to him and his closeness to us, do not speak to him because of his veneration nor did we raise our eyes towards him because of his greatness. If he smiled, his teeth were like well-organized pearls. He magnified the men of religion and showed love to the miserable. The strong did not fear his oppression nor did the weak despair of his justice. I swear that I saw him standing in his mihrab, when the dawn rose and the stars sank, and his tears flowing down his face. He was restless as if he was a sick person. He was weeping with the weeping of someone sad. It is as if I hear him say now: ‘O world, have you interfered with me or have you come to me? Deceive someone other than me! May your time not come! I have divorced you three times! I will not return to you! The life in you is insignificant! Your importance is slight! I moan because of the paucity of the provisions, the farness of the travel, and the fewness of the bosom friends.’”
[^1] Al-Mas‘udi, Murujj al-Dhahab, vol. 3, p. 309.
So Mu’awiya’s eyes were full of tears. He dried them with his sleeve. Then he said:
-May Allah have mercy on Abu al-Hasan (Imam Ali). He was just so. How is your patience toward him? -Just like the patience of the women whose son was slain in her lap. So her tears do not cease nor does her crying calm down. -How about your remembering him? -Does the time make me forget him?[^1] This debate indicates that Adiy was obedient and loyal to Imam Ali (a.s). Because of his obedience and loyalty to him, he was chased and terrorized. We have already mentioned that Ziyad imprisoned him for some days because of Abdullah bin Khalifa al-Ta’i. He paid no attention to his noble personality, his social position, and great rank. He did that to him to put an end to the followers (Shia) of Imam Ali (a.s).
6. Jariya Bin Qudama
Jariya bin Qudama al-Sa‘di came to Mu’awiya. The latter said to the former:
-Are you the one who strove with Ali, stirred up the discord, made troubles in some Arab villages, and shed the blood (of the people) therein? -O Mu’awiya, leave Ali. We have not detested Ali since we loved him nor have we cheated him since we followed him. -Woe unto you, O Jariya! How easy you were with your family when they named you Jariya! -You, O Mu’awiya, were easier (than I) with your family when they named you Mu’awiya! -You do not have a mother. -My mother is she who gave birth to me.[^2] The swords with which we met you at the Battle of Siffin are still in our hands. -Surely, you are threatening me! -You have not ruled over us by force nor have you conquered us by force. But you had given us promises and covenants. If you were loyal to us, we would
[^1] Al-Mahasin wa al-Masawi’, vol. 1, p. 32. [^2] According to Ibn ‘Abd Rabbah’s narration: “My mother gave birth to me for swords.”
be loyal to you. If you wish something other than that, then we have left behind us many men, strong arms, and sharp spearheads. If you approached us through a small span of treachery, we would approach you through a span of the outstretched arms of betrayal. -May Allah not increase the like of you among the people! Jariya went away while he made Mu’awiya’s heart full of sorrow.[^1] He met this humiliation and rebuke because of his allegiance to the Prophet’s pure family for whose love Allah has made obligatory on all Muslims.
Terrorizing the Wives of the Shia men
Mu’awiya terrorized and persecuted the Shiite men and their leaders. In the meantime he searched their wives. When a woman with an important position was mentioned in his presence, he sent for her to make light of her, terrorize, abase, and show her that he harbored violent malice and hatred against Imam Ali (a.s) and his followers. We will mention to readers some names of the ladies for whom Mu’awiya sent, and who came to him, along with the speeches that took place between him and them. They are as follows:
Al-Zarqa’, daughter of Adiy
Al-Zarqa’, daughter of Adiy, was among those ladies who were famous for their obedience and loyalty to Imam Ali (a.s). She was one of the eloquent ladies who had correct opinions. At the Battle of Siffin she urged the people to support Imam Ali (a.s) (a.s) and to fight against his opponents. When Islam suffered the loss of Imam Ali (a.s), Mu’awiya became the ruler. He wrote his governor over Kufa a letter in which he commanded him to send him al-Zarqa’, daughter of Adiy. He sent her to him. When she came in to him, he welcomed her. Then he asked her:
-Did you know why I sent for you?
-Glory belongs to Allah! How do I know what I do not know? None knows what is in hearts except Allah! -I have sent for you to question you: Were you not the rider of the red camel at the Battle of Siffin between the two ranks stirring up the battle and urging (the people) to fight? What made you do that? -O Commander of the Faithful, the head died, the tail was cut off, and the time has changed. Whoever thinks comes to know (the results). Events follow each other. [^1] Tarikh al-Khulafa’, p. 199.
-You have said the truth! Have you memorized the speech you said at the Battle of Siffin? -I have not memorized it. -But I, by Allah to Whom your father belongs, have memorized it. I heard you saying: “O people, you are in a discord. The gowns of oppression have covered you and turned you away from the straight path. How blind and deaf the discord is! It listens to its crier but is not obedient to its leader. Surely the lamp does not shine in the sun nor do the stars shine with the moon. The mule is not ahead of the horse nor is a small feather equal to a stone. Nothing cuts iron except iron. Verily, whoever asks us to show him the right way, we shall guide him, and whoever asks us (about something), we shall tell him. So be patient, O people of Ansar and Muhajireen. The gap of the division has healed. The word of justice has gathered. And the truth had defeated falsehood. Therefore, none of you should hurry to say: ‘How and when is justice?’ But, in order that Allah might bring about a matter which was to be done.[^1] Surely the dye of women is henna, and the dye of men is blood. Patience is the best of final results. Get ready for war! Do not shrink and do not quarrel with each other, for this day has that which will be after it.”
After Mu’awiya had mentioned her speech, he was displeased with it. He became angry and said to her:
-By Allah, O Zarqa’, you took part in every blood Ali shed! -May Allah make good your good news and make permanent your safety. The like of you gives good news and delights his associate. -Has that pleased you? -Yes, by Allah, your speech has pleased me. How can I believe your act? Mu’awiya was astonished at her loyalty to Imam Ali (a.s). He said to her:
-By Allah, your loyalty to him after his death is more lovable to me than your love for him during his lifetime. Mention your need. -I have bound myself that I will never ask a governor against whom I had helped others. The like of you gives generously without being asked or demanded. -You have said the truth.
[^1] Qur’an, 8, 42. Then he granted her a country estate with other gifts, and returned her to her homeland.[^1] Although he honored and gave her generously at last, he terrified and terrorized her and showed her that he had gained a victory over her.
Umm al-Khayr al-Bariqiyya
Umm al-Khayr al-Bariqiya, daughter of al-Huraysh, was among the eloquent, skillful ladies. She was famous for her allegiance and loyalty to Imam Ali (a.s), peace be on him. At the Battle of Siffin she urged the people to battle against Mu’awiya. She also urged them to defend and support Imam Ali (a.s). Mu’awiya felt pain because of her attitudes. He harbored malice and enmity against her. When the spirit of Islam abated through his taking the reins of government, he wrote to his governor over Kufa to send him Umm al-Khayr that he might take vengeance on her. When the letter reached his governor, he sent her to him. When Umm al-Khayr came in to Mu’awiya, she said:
-Assalamu ‘alayka, O Commander of the faithful! -Wa ‘alayki assalam! By Allah, you have unwillingly greeted me with this title! -Stop, fellow! Surely, the intuition of the supreme ruler (Sultan) refutes that which should be known. -You have said the truth, O aunt! How have you seen your journey? -I was still in well-being and safety until I reached a generous, openhanded king. Therefore, I am in an elegant life with a kind king. -Through my good intention I gained a victory over you and helped (others) against you. -Stop, fellow! By Allah, you shall have the refutation of the statement whose final result will ruin (you)! -We want you not for this. -I only do in your field. If I do something, I will do it. Therefore, ask as you like. -How was your speech on the day when ‘Ammar bin Yasir was killed? -By Allah, I had not narrated it before nor had I forged it after. It was only some words my tongue said at the time of the shock. If you wished to narrate you something other than that, I would do? [^1] Tayfur, Balaghat al-Nisa’, (Najaf edition), p. 32. Subh al-A‘sha. Al-Mustatraf.
-I do not want that. Then Mu’awiya turned to his companions and asked them: “Which of you has memorized the speech of Umm al-Khayr?” “I have memorized it just as I have memorized the Sura of al-Hamd,” one of them retorted. “Say it,” demanded Mu’awiya.
He said: “It is as if that I see her wearing a Zubadi garment with a thick hem and ridding a gray camel. There was in her hand and around her a whip with spread out plaits. She was roaring as if she was a stallion growling in it’s shaqshaqa[^1] , and (I hear her) say: ‘O people, guard against (the punishment from) your Lord; surely the violence of the hour is a grievous thing.[^2] Surely Allah has made clear the truth, showed the evidence, lighted the path, and hoisted the flag. He has neither left you in a vague error nor in gloomy days. So where do you want (to go)? May Allah have mercy on you! Do you want to escape from the Commander of the faithful, (Imam Ali)? Or (do you want) to escape from the battle? Or (do you want to) turn away from Islam? Or (do you want to) renounce the truth? Have you not heard Allah, the Great and Almighty, say: And most certainly We will try you until We have known these among you who exert themselves hard, and the patient, and made your case manifest.[^3] ’ Then she raised her head towards the heaven and said: ‘O Allah, I have lost patience! Certainty has become weak. Terror has spread. In your hands, O Lord, are the reins of hearts. Therefore, gather the word on piety, unite the hearts on guidance, and return the right to its owners. Come, may Allah have mercy on you, to the just Imam, the faithful guardian (of authority), and the greatest testifier of the truth. Surely the Battle of Badr has brought about these grudges. These spites date back to the pre-Islamic period. The Battle of Uhud has brought about this malice. Mu’awiya employed them at the time of the inattentiveness, that he may take vengeance (on us) for the Banu ‘Abd Shams.’”
“Then she said: ‘Then fight the leaders of unbelief-surely their oaths are nothing-so that they may desist.[^4] Be patient, O people of the Muhajireen and the Ansar! Fight according to certainty from your Lord! You have come to
[^1] Shaqshaqa is something like a lung the camel takes out of its mouth when it is excited. [^2] Qur’an, 22, 1. [^3] Qur'an, 47, 31. [^4] Ibid., 9, 12.
know that the people of Sham as if they were asses taking flight, that had fled from a lion, that they do not know in which way of the ways in the earth they are driven. They have sold the hereafter for the life in this world, bought misguidance for guidance, and sold certainty for blindness. Shortly after that they will become repentant. When regret occurs, they will ask for forgiveness. Surely, by Allah, whoever deviates from the truth falls into falsehood, and whoever does not dwell in the Garden dwells in the Fire. O People, surely the sane regard the lifetime in the world as short, so they refuse it. They find slow the period of the hereafter, so they strive for it. By Allah, O people, were it not for that the rights became invalid, the criminal punishments were cancelled, the oppressive appeared, Satan’s word became strong, we would not prefer coming to death to the easy, agreeable life.
So where do you want (to go)? May Allah have mercy on you! (Do you want to turn away) from the cousin of Allah’s Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family, his son-in-law, and father of his grandsons? He (Imam Ali) was created from his (the Prophet) clay and branched from his plant. He (the Prophet) singled him (Imam Ali) with his secret, regarded him as the gate of the city of his knowledge, informed the Muslims of love for him, showed the hypocrites through their detesting him. He (Imam Ali) still supported him (the Prophet) through helping him and followed the Sunna of his straightness. He did not resort to the pleasure of the self while he split the tops of the heads, broke the idols, prayed when people were polytheists and obeyed when people were doubters. He was so until he killed those who fought him in single combat at the battle of Badr, destroyed the people (who took part at the battle) of Uhud, and defeated the gathering of Hawazin. I wonder at those events that planted in the hearts of the people hypocrisy, apostasy, and division. I have exerted myself in speaking (to you) and gone too far in advising (you). Success is with Allah. Peace, Allah’s mercy, and His blessings be on you!’
Mu’awiya became angry. He said to her some words dripping anger and rage: “By Allah, O Umm al-Khayr, you, through that, wanted nothing but killing me. By Allah, if I killed you, I would not commit a sin as to that.”
She answered him while she was not afraid of him: -By Allah, O Hind’s son, the thing that depresses me is that Allah does that through the hands of one through whose unhappiness Allah makes me happy. -How far! O one plentiful in curiosity! What do you think of ‘Uthman bin ‘Affan? -What could I possibly say as to him? The people unwillingly appointed him as a caliph and killed him while they were satisfied.