The Life of Imam Al-hasan Al-mujtaba
Chapter Xxiv : Mu’awiya Violates the Stipulations of the Peacemaking Part 3
After a speech had taken place between them, Mu’awiya released and pardoned her.[^1] Souda, daughter of Imarah
Souda, daughter of Imarah bin al-Ashtar al-Hamadani, was one of the Iraqi eloquent ladies. She inherited the love for Imam Ali (a.s), from her noble forefathers, who were famous for their love and loyalty to him. She came to Mu’awiya to complain to him of the tyranny of his governor. When she came in to him, he recognized her and said to her: -Are you not the one who said (the following poetry lines) at the Battle of Siffin? O Ibn Imarah, get ready (for battle) just as your father did on the day of stabbing and the meeting place of the companions. Surely the Imam is the brother of the Prophet Muhammad, the flag of guidance and minaret of faith. Lead the troops and walk in front of his standard with a white, cutting (sword) and a spearhead.
-The like of me does not turn away from the truth or apologize with lying. -What made you do that? -The love for Ali and following the truth. -By Allah, I can see none of Ali’s qualities on your face. -O Commander of the faithful, the head died, and the tail was cut off. So leave that which has been forgotten and that which passed. -How far! The like of your brother’s attitude can not be forgotten. I have not met from anyone as I met from your people and your brother. -You have said the truth. My brother was not dispraised in position nor was he hidden in place. By Allah, he was just as al-Khansa’ said: Surely the guides follow Sakhr’s example as if he was a flag on whose top was a fire.
-You have said the truth. He was so. -The head died, and the tail was cut off. By Allah I ask you, O Commander of [^1] ‘Alaam al-Nisa’, vol. 1, p. 332. Balaaghaat al-Nisa’, p. 36. Sub al-A‘sha. the faithful, to pardon me from that for which I apologize (to you).
-I have done. What is your need? -Surely you have become a master over the people and undertaken their affairs. Allah will ask you about our affairs and about our rights He has imposed on you. The one who wrongs us through your might and attacks us through your authority still comes to us. He reaps us as he reaps spikes. He treads on us as cows tread on (spikes). He humiliates and deprives us of the great (things). This (person) is Bisr bin Arta’a. He came to us from you. He killed my men folk and took my property. Were it not for the obedience (to you), then we would have might and protection. If you removed him from us, we would be grateful to you; otherwise, we would make you know.
Her speech depressed Mu’awiya, and he said to her: “You are threatening me with your people. I have decided to carry you on a coarse saddle (of a camel) and to return you to him, that he may carry out his judgment on you.”
She bowed her head and wept. She became broken-hearted, so she said: ‘Allah blessed a body that a grave contained, so justice has been buried in it. He allied the truth and he wanted nothing other than it. So he has been coupled with the truth and faith.’
-Who is that? -Ali bin Abi Talib. -What did he do to you so that he has become so to you? -I came to him regarding a man he had appointed (as a governor) over our alms. There was between him and me that which was between the thin and the fat. So I came to Ali (a.s) to complain to him of what the man had done. I found him standing and praying. When he looked at me, he ended his prayer. Then he said to me with mercy and kindness: “Do you have a need?” I told him about the story. He wept, and then he said: “O Allah, You are the witness against me and them that I have not commanded them to wrong Your creatures nor have I commanded them to leave Your right.” Then he took out of his pocket a piece like the edge of a sheath. He wrote on it: “In the name of Allah, the Most gracious, the Most merciful. Clear proof indeed has come to you from your Lord; therefore, give full measure and weight and do not diminish to men their things, and do not make mischief in the land. What remains with Allah is better for you if you are believers, and I am not a keeper over you. When you read my letter, then keep our work that is in your hands until the one who will take it from you come to you. With Greetings.” I
took the letter from him. By Allah, he did not stamp it with clay nor did he tie it with a belt. Mu’awiya was astonished at such a kind of justice. So he said: “Write to him to treat her with justice and fairness.” However, she said:
-For me in particular or for my people in general? -What is the relationship between you and other than you? -Therefore, by Allah, that is lewdness and meanness if it is not exclusive justice. Otherwise, I am just like the rest of my people. -How far! Ali bin Abi Talib, who listened to your complaints, had boldness. He has deceived you through his (following) speech: If I was a gatekeeper at the gate of a garden, I would say to (the people of) Hamadan: “Come into it with peace!” Then Mu’awiya said: “Write (a letter) about her need as to her and her people.”[^1] Umm al-Bara’, daughter of Safwan Umm al-Bara’, daughter of Safwan bin Hilal, was among the famous women in chastity and purity. She was famous for her allegiance and sincerity to Imam Ali (a.s). She had a noble attitude at the Battle of Siffin. That was when she urged the crowded people to fight against Mu’awiya. When Mu’awiya became a ruler, she came to him, and he said to her:
-How are you, O daughter of Safwan?
-Fine, O Commander of the faithful! -How are you? -I have become weak after endurance and become lazy after activity. -There is a great difference between what you say today and what you said at that time: O Amr, take a beautiful, cutting (sword)! (Be) angry in movement, and do not be cowardly. Saddle your horse quickly and be ready for the battle. Do not think of flight. [^1] ‘Alaam al-Nisa’, vol. 1, p. 211. Al-‘Aqd al-Farid, vol. 1, p. 211. Balaaghaat al-Nisa’, p. 30.
Respond to the Imam, follow his standard, and make the enemy escape with a cutting sword. Would that I was not crippled so that I might protect him from the transgressors’ troops. -Indeed it was so, O Commander of the faithful! One like you pardons. Allah, the Most High, says: “Allah has pardoned what is gone by.” -How far! Verily, if he returned, you would return. But he died before you. How was your speech at the time when he was killed? -I have forgotten it. One of those who were sitting with him said: “She said:”
O men, how great the terror of the misfortune is! The misfortune has oppressed us. Its influence is not weak. The sun is eclipsed because of the loss of our Imam, the best of the creatures, the just Imam. He was the best of those who rode the riding animals and those who walked on the earth, whether they were unshod or shod. Except the Prophet, the misfortune has threatened our deserts. So the truth has become submissive to the falsehood. Mu’awiya felt pain, so he said to her: “May Allah fight you, O daughter of Safwan. You have not let any sayer to say his statement! Mention your need!” When Umm al-Bara’ came to know that Mu’awiya made light of and disrespected her, she refused to mention her need. She said to him: “How far! By Allah, I will not ask you for a thing after this (attitude).” When she left his assembly, she stumbled. So she said: “May the enemies of Ali be miserable!”[^1] Mu’awiya made light of this noble, highborn lady because of her love for Imam Ali (a.s).
Bakara al-Hilaliya was from the great women who were famous for bravery, boldness, and eloquence. She was among the supporters of Imam Ali (a.s), at the Battle of Siffin. At the battle she made an enthusiastic speech in which she urged the fighters of the truth to defend Imam Ali, the master of the
[^1] Balaaghaat al-Nisa’, p. 75. Sub al-A‘sha.
Muslims and Commander of the faithful (a.s) and to fight against his enemies. Bakara came to Mu’awiya after he had become a ruler. She was an old woman and her bones were weak. There were two servants with her. She leant on them, and there was a walking stick in her hand. She greeted Mu’awiya with the title of the Commander of the faithful. Mu’awiya greeted her well and permitted her to sit down. Marwan bin al-Hakam and Amr bin al-‘Aas were with Mu’awiya. Marwan recognized her. So he turned to Mu’awiya and asked him: -Have you not recognized this woman, O Commander of the faithful? -Who is she? -It was she who helped Ali against us at the Battle of Siffin. It was she who said: O Zayd, take from our house the cutting sword which is buried in the earth. It has been stored for every calamity. Today the time has shown it well-protected. Amr bin al-‘Aas said: “O Commander of the faithful, it was she who said:”
Do you think that Hind’s son (Mu’awiya), will undertake the caliphate? That is far! And what he wants is far! Your soul made you in privacy desire for misguidance. Amr and Sa‘eed seduced you (to follow) misguidance. So come back with the most ill-tempered bird, with its bad luck. It (the caliphate) met Ali, who was happier, with good luck. After them Sa‘eed hurried to say: “O Commander of the faithful, it was she who said:” I hoped that I would die and not see an orator from Umayya on the pulpits. But Allah has delayed my period and it has lasted for a long time until I have seen some wonders of the time. Every day, their orator disparages Ahmed’s family among the crowds.
The people kept silent. Bakara turned to Mu’awiya and said to him: “O Commander of the faithful, your dogs barked at me and alternated (in speech). So my goal has become short, my amazement has become much, and there is a covering over my eyes. By Allah, I said what they said. I do not refute that with lying. Therefore go on your affair. That is because the life is not good after the Commander of the faithful.”[^1]
She went away while she was sad, because Mu’awiya’s associates rudely talked with her as if they were dogs, and his mean companions surrounded her.
Arwa, daughter of al-Harith
Arwa, daughter of al-Harith bin ‘Abd al-Muttalib was among the great women who were famous for boldness, bravery, and good speech. She was famous for her allegiance and love for Imam Ali (a.s). She came to Mu’awiya and aimed at him some arrows of speech. In her speech she mentioned the ordeal of the Prophet’s Household, peace be on them and what they met from among the ordeals and misfortunes after the Prophet.
This is the text of her speech: “O my nephew, you was ungrateful for the blessing, you accompanied your cousin (Imam Ali) badly, named yourself with a name other than your name, took other than your right without bravery from you and your forefathers in Islam. You disbelieved in that which Muhammad, may Allah bless him and his family, brought. So Allah made your grandfathers miserable and humiliated you until Allah returned the right to its owners; and the Word of Allah was the highest, and our Prophet Muhammad was victorious over his opponents, though the unbelievers were averse. So we, the (Prophet’s) household, were the greatest of the people in luck, portion, and position in religion. Allah took His Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family, unto Him (while) his sin was forgiven, his degree was high, and he was honorable with him and well-pleasing. But we, the Prophet’s household, were in the same position with respect to you as the people of Moses were to the Pharaoh, who killed their sons and spared their women. The cousin of the master of the messengers was in the same position with respect to you, after our Prophet, as Aaron was to Moses when he said: Son of my mother, surely the people reckoned me weak and had well-nigh slain me. After Allah’s Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family, we were not united nor were the difficulties made easy for us. Our objective is the Garden, and your objective is the Fire!”
Her speech hurt ‘Amr bin al-‘Aas, who was present, so he said: -O devious old woman, shorten your speech and lower your eyes! -Who are you, may you have no mother! -Amr bin al-‘Aas. -O son of the stinking prostitute, you speak with me? By Allah, you do not [^1] Balaaghaat al-Nisa’, p. 34. Al-‘Aqd al-Farid.
belong to the genuine ancestry of Quraysh nor do you belong to their noble position. Six (men) from Quraysh claimed you. Each one of them claimed that he was your father. In Mecca, during the days of Mina, I saw your mother with a black fornicator. Therefore, follow their examples, for you resemble them!
Marwan bin al-Hakam turned to her and said: “O devious old woman, your eyes have sunk and your reason is over! Therefore, your witness is not permissible!” She opposed him, saying: “O my little son, you are speaking? By Allah, you look like Sufyan bin al-Harith bin Killida more than you look like al-Hakam. You resemble him in your blue eyes, your red hair, along with his short figure and manifest ugliness. I have seen al-Hakam. He was tall and had straight hair. There is no resemblance between you except that which is between the lean horse and the female ass! Therefore, ask your mother about what she had mentioned to you. She will tell you about the affair of your father if she says the truth.”
Then she turned to Mu’awiya and said to him: “By Allah, none has subjected me to these (persons) except you. At the Battle of Uhud, your mother Hind said concerning the murder of Hamza, may Allah have mercy on him:
‘We punished you because of the Battle of Badr. War, at the day of war, has a blaze. I had no patience toward ‘Uttba, my father, my paternal uncle, my brother, and my son-in-law. You, O Wahshi, satisfied my thirst for revenge, healed my soul, and fulfilled my vow. So I will thank Wahshi throughout my lifetime until my bones will be hidden in my grave.’ So I answered her:
O daughter of the one great in unbelief, you were disgraced at (the Battle of) Badr and other than Badr. Before the dawn rose, Allah had made you meet (in battle) the tall, brilliant Hashimites (who fought against you) with every cutting sword. Hamza is my lion, and Ali is my hawk. When Shabeeb and your father wanted to act treacherously, you gave (a spear) to Wahshi, who had a lean chest.
Wahshi unveiled (you). After it the prostitutes shall have no pride. Mu’awiya became excited. He turned to Amr bin al-‘Aas and Marwan and said to them: “Woe unto you! You have subjected me to her and made me hear what I dislike!”
Then he turned to her and said: -O aunt, mention your need and leave women’s fables. -You ordered me to be given two thousand dinars, two thousand dinars, and two thousand dinars. -What will you do with the (first) two thousand dinars? -I will buy a spring with much flowing water in a soft land, that the children of al-Harth bin ‘Abd al-Muttalib may inherit it. -You have placed it in the best place. What will you do with the (second) two thousand dinars? -With it I will marry the young men of ‘Abd al-Muttalib to (young ladies) equal to them. -You have placed it in the best place. What will you do with the (third) two thousand dinars? -I will make use of it when I face hardships in Medina, and I will make the pilgrimage to the Sacred House of Allah (the Kaaba). -You have placed it in the best place. Yes, you shall have it.
After Mu’awiya had given her this plentiful amount of money, he turned to her to test the extent of her loyalty to Imam Ali (a.s), saying: -By Allah, if Ali was alive, he would not ordered it to be given to you. -You have said the truth! Surely Ali returned the things deposited with him. He acted according to Allah’s command and followed it. As for you, you have lost the things deposited with you and betrayed Allah as to His wealth. That is because you give Allah’s wealth to those who do not deserve it. In His Book, Allah has made it incumbent on you to give the rights to their owners, but you have not followed that. As for Ali, he summoned us to take the rights Allah had specified to us. However your war (against him) distracted him from placing the affairs in their places. I have not asked you for anything of your wealth lest you should remind me of it. Rather I have asked you for something of our right. I do not want to take anything other than my right. Do you remember Ali? May Allah scatter your teeth and overexert your affliction!
She wept, and then she elegized Imam Ali (a.s), saying: Indeed, O my eye, woe unto you, make us happy and weep for the Commander of the faithful. We have suffered the loss of the one who was the best of those who rode the riding animals, their knight, those who embarked on the ship, and those shod and unshod. When I turn in the direction of the face of Abu al-Hasan, I see that the full moon appeals to the onlookers. No, by Allah, I shall not forget Ali and his good prayer before those who bow. In the Sacred Month (of Ramadan) you made us suffer the loss of the one who was the best of the people.
Mu’awiya ordered six thousand dinars to be given to her. She took them and went away.[^1] Mu’awiya honored her because he wanted to attract her heart and to turn her away from the love for Imam Ali (a.s). However his effort failed, because money did not change those who were disposed by nature for the love for Imam Ali (a.s), nor did material pleasures change their creed. The daughter of Abu al-Aswad al-Du’ali mentioned this good feeling. That was when Mu’awiya sent some candy to her father to turn him away from the love for Imam Ali (a.s). She took some of that candy and put it into her mouth. Her father said to her: “Spit it out, for it is poison. Mu’awiya sent us this candy to turn us away from the love for the Commander of the faithful (Imam Ali), and from the love for (the Prophet’s) household.” When his daughter heard that, she expressed her good feeling and great love for Imam Ali (a.s), saying: “May Allah make him (Mu’awiya) ugly. He wants to turn us away from the purified Sayyid (Imam Ali) through some candy mixed with saffron. Woe unto the one who sent the candy! And woe unto the one who eats it!”
She vomited what she ate, and then she said: O Hind’s son, do you want us to sell you ancestries and religion for honey mixed with saffron? We seek refuge with Allah (from that)! How is that while our guardian is the Commander of the faithful (Imam Ali)?[^2] [^1] Balaaghaat al-Nisa’, p. 27. Al-‘Aqd al-Farid, vol. 1, p. 219. [^2] Al-Kuna wa al-Alqaab, vol. 1, p. 8.
Ukrisha, daughter of al-Atrash
Ukrisha, daughter of al-Atrash, was a great lady. She was regarded as on top of the Arab women in bravery and eloquence. At the Battle of Siffin she urged the people to support Imam Ali and to fight against his enemies. She came to Mu’awiya when he became a ruler. She greeted him with the title of the Commander of the faithful. Mu’awiya remembered her attitude at the Battle of Siffin, so he said to her: “O Ukrisha, now have I become the Commander of the faithful?” She answered him: “Yes, for Ali is no longer alive!”
However, Mu’awiya was not satisfied with that. He reminded her of her attitude and speech at the Battle of Siffin, saying: “Were you not the owner of the lowered saddle and tied rope? Were you not girding yourself with a sword, standing at Siffin, and saying: ‘O you who believe, take care of your souls; he who errs cannot hurt you when you are on the right way.[^1] Surely the Garden is an abode. Whoever dwells in it does not leave it, and whoever lives in it does not become sad. Therefore buy it for the abode in which comfort does not last and cares do not expire. Be discerning people! Surely Mu’awiya has advanced towards you along with some Arabs speaking incorrectly, whose hearts are covered, do not understand faith, and do not know what wisdom is. He summoned them to the present life, and they responded to him. He invited them (to follow) the falsehood, and they answered him. So, Allah’s servants, fear Allah and keep Allah (in view in the matter of) Allah’s religion! Beware of relying on each other! That is because, through that, the pillar of Islam is broken, the light of faith is extinguished, the Sunna are cancelled, and falsehood appears. This is Minor Badr and other Aqaba! O people of the Ansar and Muhajireen fight and be certain of your religion! Be patient toward your determination! It is as if that I can see that you will tomorrow meet the people of Sham, who are like braying asses….’”
After Mu’awiya had reminded her of her speech, he angrily said to her: “By Allah, had it not been for Allah’s decree and for that He liked to entrust us with this authority, the two armies would not have retreated. What made you say that?”
She gave him a soft answer, saying: “Surely if the wise one dislikes something, he does not like to repeat it.” -You have said the truth. Mention your need! [^1] Qur’an, 5, 105.
-Surely Allah had returned our endowments and properties to us. But we have lost that. So our condition does not refresh the poor nor does it set the broken. If that was according to your viewpoint, then the like of you does not get help from the traitors, nor does he employ the oppressive. However Mu’awiya paid no attention to her asking for mercy. He said to her: -O this (lady), surely affairs befall us. They are more appropriate for us than you, than seas that gush out, and than the fortified borderline cities that have become ripped open. -Glory belongs to Allah. Allah has not imposed for us a right in which He has placed damage against other than us. He is the Knower of the unseen. Mu’awiya found no escape from responding to her, saying:
-How far! O people of Iraq, (Ali) bin Abi Talib had enlightened you, and you have become unbearable. Then he ordered her need to be granted and allowed her to go back home.[^1]
Al-Darimiyya al-Hajuniya was a notable lady. She was famous for righteousness, asceticism, strong proof, and intense opposition. She pledged allegiance to Imam Ali (a.s). When Mu’awiya became a ruler, he sent for her. He was then in al-Hijaz. When she stood before him, he said to her: -How are you, O daughter of Ham?
-Fine. I do not belong to Ham. Rather I am a woman from Quraysh, from the Banu Kinana. Therefore, I belong to the children of your father. -You have said the truth. Did you know why I sent for you? -No. Glory belongs to Allah! How do I know that which I do not know! -I sent for you to ask you about the reason why you loved Ali, and hated me, why you followed him and was hostile to me. -Exempt me from that!
-I will not exempt you. For this reason I have summoned you. -If you not exempt me, then I say. I loved Ali because he treated the subjects with justice and he equally divided (the properties among them). I hate you because you fought those who were worthier of the authority than you and [^1] Balaaghaat al-Nisa’, p. 70. Al-‘Aqd al-Farid, vol. 1, p. 215. Subh al-A‘sha.
you claimed that which did not belong to you. I followed Ali because Allah’s Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family, entrusted him with authority, (and because Ali) loved the miserable and magnified the men of religion. I was hostile to you because you shed blood and mutinied (against Ali).
Mu’awiya was displeased with her speech. He said obscene words to her and made light of her, saying: -You have said the truth. For this reason your belly has become swollen, your breasts have become big, and your buttocks have become great. -O fellow, by Allah, (your mother) Hind, and not I, is quoted as an example (for that). -Do not be angry. I have said nothing except good. When the women’s belly is swollen, the creation of her baby is perfect. When her breasts are big, the food of her baby is good. When her buttocks are great, her sitting becomes balanced.
He calmed her fear and quietened her anger. Then he said to her:
-Have you seen Ali? -Yes, by Allah, I have seen him. -How did you see him? -The authority did not make him proud nor did the blessing polish him.[^1] -Have you heard his speech? -By Allah, his speech removed blindness from hearts just as oil removes rust from washbasin. -You have said the truth. Do you have a need? -Will you do that when I ask you? -Yes. -Give me a hundred she-camels, some stallions, and a camel driver. -What will you do with them? -I will give their milk to the young. Through them I will give life to the old (help them), earn noble deeds, and make peace between the clans. [^1] In the book al-Iqd al-Fareed, it has been mentioned: “By Allah, I have seen him. The authority that has fascinated you did not fascinate him. The blessing that has busied you did not busy him.”
-If I gave you that, would I take the place of Ali bin Abi Talib from you? -Glory belongs to Allah! You are inferior to him! Mu’awiya was amazed at her, so he said:
If I do not be clement toward you, then who will be hoped for clemency after me? Take them and remember the deed of someone glorious, who has rewarded you at the time of peace for the war against the enemies. -By Allah, if Ali was alive, he would give you nothing of them. -No, by Allah, (he would not give me) anything of the Muslims’ public treasury![^1]
With this we will end our speech about what the followers of Imam Ali (a.s) met of severe punishments, torture, execution, oppression, terrorism, abasement, and insult by Mu’awiya and his governor Ziyad. Through these acts Mu’awiya violated the most important stipulation, which is that he should not subject the followers of the Prophet’s household to evil and detested things out of previous malice.
Imam al-Husayn holds a Meeting
When Imam al-Husayn, the master of martyrs, came to know about the decisive measures Mu’awiya had taken against the pure family of the Prophet, he (a.s) held a meeting in Mecca. He summoned a large gathering from among those who attended the season of hajj from among the Muhajireen, the Ansar, the successors, and other Muslims. He informed them of that which befell the Prophet’s household and their followers. He told them that they would meet ordeals and misfortunes from the then government that used all means to scheme against the family of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family, to hide their virtues and to conceal what was narrated from the Prophet, concerning them. He made it incumbent on those who attended the meeting to announce that among the Muslims. We will mention what Sulaym bin Qays has narrated regarding that. He has said: “One year before the death of Mu’awiya, al-Husayn bin Ali, Abdullah bin Abbas, and Abdullah bin Ja‘far made the pilgrimage to Mecca. Al-Husayn gathered the Banu Hashim, their men, their women, their retainers, and the Ansar who performed the hajj, and whom al-Husayn (a.s) and his household had known. Then he sent some messengers and said to them: ‘Gather for me the companions of Allah’s
[^1] Balaaghaat al-Nisa’, p. 72. Al-‘Aqd al-Farid, vol. 1, p. 216. Subh al-A‘sha.
Apostle, who have performed the hajj this year, and who are famous for righteousness and asceticism.’ Over seven hundred men most of whom were of the successors, and about two hundred men of the companions of the Prophet (a.s) gathered in Mina. He arose and addressed them. He praised Allah and glorified Him. Then he said: ‘This tyrant (Mu’awiya) has done to us and our followers what you have seen, known, and witnessed. I want to ask you about something. If you believe me, then believe me. If you accuse me of lying, then accuse me of lying. Listen to my statement and write down my speech, and then go back to your cities and your tribes. If you came to know that some people were reliable and trustworthy, then summon them to our right you have come to know, for, surely, I am afraid that this affair will be effaced and overcome. But Allah will perfect his light, though the unbelievers may be averse.’
“And he did not leave anything of that which Allah had revealed concerning them but he recited and explained, nor did he leave anything of what Allah’s Apostle (a.s) had said concerning his father, his brother, his mother, him, and his household but he narrated it. So his companions said: ‘O Allah, yes! We have heard and borne witness!’ The successor said: ‘O Allah, he whom I believe and regards as reliable from among the companions has related it to me.’ So he said: ‘I implore you before Allah to relate it to him in whose religion you have confidence.’”[^1]
This meeting Imam al-Husayn held was the first meeting the Islamic world knew at that time. At the meeting Imam al-Husayn condemned Mu’awiya’s policy and summoned the Muslims to resist his government and to overthrow his authority.
The Pledge of Allegiance to Yazid
One of the most important stipulations of the peacemaking is that the Islamic caliphate had to be handed over to Imam al-Hasan, and after him to his brother al-Husayn after the death of Mu’awiya. This was among the most important conditions Mu’awiya had signed. However when he became a ruler and the authority went well with him, he decided to violate this condition and not to fulfill it. He did his best to make his family inherit the caliphate. He, through this act, was as Professor Sayyid Qutub has said: “He (Mu’awiya) was moved by a motive Islam had not known; (he was moved by) the family and tribal fanaticism. It was not much to Mu’awiya nor was it strange to him. That is because Mu’awiya was the son of Abi Sufyan and the son of Hind, [^1] Sulaym bin Qays.
daughter of Utba. He was the inheritor of his people and was the most similar of all things to them in that his soul was far from the reality of Islam.”[^1]
Through this act, Mu’awiya was moved by the motive of the blind pre-Islamic beliefs (Jahiliya) and by the tribal fanaticism Islam has condemned. Islam has stipulated that whoever undertakes the affairs of government should have talents, qualifications, knowledge, and merits. Islam has cancelled all the considerations that have nothing to do with its high values. In an authentic tradition, Allah’s Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family, has said: “Whoever undertakes some affairs of the Muslims and appoints someone as a commander over them out of partiality, then Allah’s curse be on him. Neither pure (thing) nor justice is accepted from him until he enters the Hellfire.”[^2] However Mu’awiya, who renounced Islam, acted according to his pre-Islamic beliefs to take vengeance on Islam and to divide the ranks of the Muslims. That was when he intentionally entrusted the caliphate to his sinful son Yazid. Prof. Polis Salama, a poet, has described Yazid’s dissoluteness, saying:
Do gently to the owner of the throne who is distracted from Allah by the beautiful female singers. A thousand “Allah is greater!” is not equal to a drink of wine in Yazid’s palms of the hand. A virgin burns in the vats while neither kissing nor pure water has defiled her.[^3]
Concerning Yazid, Abdullah bin Hanzala, a great companion, called the monk, and was killed at the Battle of al- Hurra, has said: “By Allah, we did not revolt against Yazid until we feared that we would be shot with stones from the heaven. He was a man who married mothers, daughters, and sisters. He drank wine and left the prayer. By Allah, if there was none of the people with me, I would show extreme courage toward him.” [^4] When al-Zubayr bin al-Munthir came to Medina, he said concerning Yazid: “He has given me a hundred thousand (dinars). What he has done to me does not prevent me from telling you: ‘By Allah, he drank wine. By Allah, he became drunk and left the prayer.’”[^5] Ibn Fulayh has said: “Abu Amr bin Hafs came to Yazid, and he honored and rewarded him well. When he came to Medina, he stood up beside the pulpit. He was good and righteous. He addressed the people, saying: ‘Was
[^1] Al-‘Adala al-Ijtima‘iya, p. 180. [^2] Al-Nasaa’ih, p. 39. [^3] Mulhamat al-Ghadir, p. 227. [^4] Ibn ‘Asakir, Tarikh, vol. 7, p. 372. Al-Sayuti, Tarikh al-Khulafa’, p. 81. [^5] Al-Bidaya wa al-Nihaya, vol. 8, p. 216. Ibn al-Athir, al-Kamil, vol. 4, p. 45.
I not loved? Was I not honored? By Allah, I saw Yazid bin Mu’awiya leave the prayer because he was drunk.’”[^1]
Certainly Mu’awiya had come to know that his son was a sinner. He committed major sins, addicted himself to drinking wine, and left the prayer. He mentioned that in his letter in which he condemned his deeds, saying: “I have heard that you have used the banquet and the assemblies for amusements and flutes just as Allah, the Most High, has said: Do you build on every height a monument? Vain is that you do; and you make strong fortresses that perhaps you may abide.[^2] You have declared the ill-deed, to the extent that you have openly adopted the secret (things) with you. Know, O Yazid, the first thing which intoxication has deprived you of is the knowledge of the places of giving thanks to Allah for His successive blessings and boons, which is the greatest sin and the greatest calamity. Your leaving the obligatory prayers during their times, which is the greatest damage that happens. Then you have approved defects, committed sins, showed faults, and disclosed the secrets. Therefore, do not entrust yourself with your secret and do not rely on your deed.”[^3]
Mu’awiya had come to know that his son was apostate from the religion, he regarded as lawful what Allah had made forbidden, and was absorbed in pleasures. Therefore, why did he empower him over the Muslims and impose him as a ruler over them? He did that because he was moved by the motive of harboring malice against Islam and by the motive of the pre-Islamic fanaticism of which his wicked soul was full.
Mu’awiya spared no effort to impose Yazid as a ruler over the Muslims. He habituated the people for seven years. He gave money to his relatives and brought near those far for that.[^4] When Ziyad, who was reluctant to pay homage to Yazid, died, Mu’awiya fabricated a covenant and ascribed it to him. The covenant showed that Yazid would be the caliph after him.[^5] In this manner Mu’awiya depended on all the means with which the Muslims were unfamiliar and which the religion did not confirm in order that he might place the authority among the Umayyads and change the creative concepts of the caliphate into a hereditary kingdom. All these premises Mu’awiya made took place during the lifetime of Imam al-Hasan, peace be on him. However he did
[^1] Ibn ‘Asakir, vol. 7, p. 28. [^2] Qur’an, 26, 128-129. [^3] Subh al-A‘sha, vol. 6, p. 388. [^4] Al-‘Aqd al-Farid, vol. 2, p. 302. [^5] Al-Tabari, Tarikh, vol. 6, p. 270. Al-‘Aqd al-Farid, vol. 2, p. 302.
not declare the official pledge of allegiance to Yazid until he assassinated the Imam. We have to deal with some preparatory means Mu’awiya had done for this purpose.