The Role of Ideology in Constructing the Human Being
The Symptoms of Liberating
The Islamic ideology played an active role in liberating Man on different axes:
Firstly: It has freed man from political dictatorship.
No one in Islam can dictate to another person, nor is there any exploitation of a class or a nation over an other one (religion has been along the Islamic history one of the most prominent factor of the appearance of liberation movements whatever the view point of the researcher towards religion he can not exclude the religious factor and its influence in building the revolutionary awareness during this era of Islamic history.
Abbizer’s and Alhussain’s (A.S.) revolutions had been nothing but a starting point of a concious tendency to correct the deviation in the history of Islam. In spite of all deviation from which Moslems had suffered along their long history they hadn’t lost in any era of this history a strong revolutionary tendency which strives to restore Islam to the runs of life to eliminate oppression, exploitation and to restore the rights of the Moslem and his dignity”. [^7]
The Islamic ideology has released Man from “defying people” such as worshipping monarchs and dynasties. This habit was prevented by some ancient nations like ancient Egyptians. Islam has abolished the theories of discrimination against any one on the basis of race or language or color or wealth or power. The measure of superiority is restricted within moral matters which are piety and virtue, Allah “be exalted” Has said: (O you men!
Surely we have created you of a male and a female and made you tribes and nations that you may know each other, surely the most honorable of you with Allah is the one among you most pious! Surely Allah is knowing aware)[^8]
Islam has preceded the French revolution in announcing the doctrine of liberty with ten centuries.
Ameeral Mu’amineen Ali (A.S.) says in one of his sermons (O people, Adam has not born a slave or a girl maid all people are free…) [^9]
But Islam has not made this granted freedom for Man unlimited so that man is free to do whatever he wishes. Rather it set controllers and curbs for freedom least it results in anarchy.
Hence, the difference between the Islamic ideology, which connects human freedom with slavery to Allah and the conscious and voluntary submission to His authority and between the legislation which throw Man in amazement that doesn’t accord with his ability and his nature.
From this, there must be a balance between freedom and servitude, there is no a balance in this concern which releases Man’s energies and preserves his nature at the same time but what we find in Islam; a servitude to Allah and liberty from other servitudes, these slave’s freedom does not become complete except through his servitude to Allah, his servitude to Allah does not become complete except through his freedom from worshipping other than Him, so there is a clear balance and consistency between the social side and the tiducial side in the character of Moslem through the way of freedom as Islam views it.[^10]
In the light of what has preceded, the ideology settles a basic truth which is the essence of the true freedom is the servitude to Allah because it means the freedom from all deviated authorities while in the servitude to Allah there is not any disgrace for human’s dignity rather it, on the contrary, consolidates his character and protects his dignity.
The prophet “s.w.a.” has been proud of his being a slave of Allah, he liked to be called the slave of Allah and refused the exaltation, which may lead to the false deity, as it had happened to “Ahlil Kitaab” (Christians and Jews) in spite of Allah’s warning them not to raise the personalities of their prophets, Allah said: “O followers of the Book! Don’t exceed the limits in your religion and don’t speak (lies) against Allah but speak the truth the Messiah Isa son of Maryam is only an apostle of Allah and His word, which he communicated to Maryam and a spirit from Him…” [^11]
The School of “Ahlil Bait” (A.S.) refuses strongly the idea of apotheosizing people through concentrating on the feature of servitude for sometimes…
Ameeralmu’amineen Ali (A.S.) said “I am the slave of Allah and the brother of His prophet” [^12]Alimaam Alreza (A.S.) said: “I am proud of being Allah’s slave”[^13]. The idea of apothessizing people has been prevailing among other nations then it sneaked to the followers of heavenly religions and mixed with the beliefs of some of them.
Christianity for example claims AlMasseiah’s deity, Judaism claims that Auzair is the son of Allah!
Therefore Imam Ali’s wisdom and foresight becomes clear in his concentration on the feature of “servitude” and his challenge to withstand all the claims of exaggeration which attributed him to deity. It is narrated in “Hadeeth” that “some people came to Ameeral mu’amineen (A.S.) and said: Salutations be to you, our God! He called them to repent but they didn’t, he dug for them a hole, he kindled fire in it then he dug another hole beside it and connected them when they didn’t repent he threw them down in the hole and kindled fire in the other hole till they died. [^14]
In this concern he said: “In me two kinds of men perished an exaggerating lover and an extravagant hater” [^15]
Secondly: The Islamic ideology has released Moslem from his lusts after it has connected his heart with Allah and the next abode and it didn’t connect him with his wishes and caprices. The Islamic ideology has supplied the Moslem’s mind and will with the protective immunity from deviation or preferring the transient world to the remaining everlasting life. The spirit –according to Ahlilbait’s instructions- is the place of danger, so it took most of their attentions.
Thus, we find that the speech about the “spirit”, the necessity of controlling it, occupies a vast area of Ameeral Mu’amineen’s sayings, maxims and preachments, he didn’t miss any chance without speaking about the “soul” because it is the pivot of the mill in building the human being.
The Holy Qur’an has told us: “Allah has never changed a favor which He has conferred upon a people until they changed their own conditions”[^16], so what is noteworthy is that Imam Ali (A.S.)-during the days of his just government- was ordering his governors and leaders to take control over their wishes, although he has chosen them precisely from virtue and that most of them had a recommended merits,
from alter he (A.S.) wrote to Alashtar when he appointed him as a governor of Egypt: “this is what Abdullah Ameeralmu’amineen ordered Maalik bin AlHaarith Alashtar…he ordered him to fear Allah and to prefer His obedience… he ordered him to break his devotion to lusts…as the spirit longs for evils, except what Allah’s mercy helps…so take control over your wishes, keep your wishes back of what is not permitted to you as taking control of the spirit is the equity of what she loves and hates and feel sympathy to your subject. [^17]
From a commandment to Shureih Ibna Haani, one of his millitary leaders when he appointed him on the vanguard of his army to Alsham: “…know that if you don’t hold yourself back from so much of what you like your wishes will guide you to so much damage. So would you prevent yourself and deter it..”[^18].
From a letter he wrote to Muaweia, he uncovered to him the secret of his mutiny against the legal leadership i-e his psychological deviations, he said to him- your spirit (wishes) has driven you in evils, pushed into sin, has led you to perils and has guided you through rough passageways” [^19]
Psychological deviation has serious consequences especially from those who take power without legality and qualification.
“Ahlilbait” with their known infallibility were asking Allah to help them take conrol over their wishes in order to teach and refine others” some of what is cited in a supplication of Imam Zeinala’abideen (A.S.) “…And weaken our strength to do what enrages you to us, do not let our souls alone with its choice as it chooses false option except what You help, longs for evil except what you lead with Your mercy”. [^20]
from all that we deduce that Man cannot be built except by taking control over the soul “wishes” about which we will speak later.
Thirdly: the Islamic ideology has released Man from worshipping nature and sanctifying its phenomenon, and fear of it, Allah says: “of His signs night and day, sun and moon don’t kneel to the sun and to the moon…” [^21]
Man has passed through the stage of confusion, inquiry and fear of the phenomenon of nature about him, he does not know any thing of its secrets and changes of its conditions so he began to sanctify it and sacrifised to it generously thinking that- he can feel safe of its bursting volcanos, destructive earthquakes, sweeping floods and its burning thunder bolts.
So the ideology worked towards purifying minds of their veils, opened the vast way to make use of nature and to make peace with it when it removed the thick veils between Man and nature, it has became clear to him that nature and what it includes of creatures and happiness are all emanated from Allah (be exalted),
they are exploited creatures to serve him, he (Man) has nothing to do but to make use of them, think of them and their origin in order to reach through them to the Creator: “will they not then consider the camels, how they are created? And the heaven how it is reared aloft, and the mountains how they are firmly fixed and the earth how it is made a vast expanse? [^22]
We must point out here that the procedure of the ideology in building human being is a “comprehensive procedure” it arranges Man’s relationship with himself, his creator, and nature around him. Every establishment or development in the relationship between man and his Creator will be reflected positively on the relationship between Man and nature, which is drudged by the hands of Allah.
So it grants the faithful man with blessings and benevolences. Hence the prophet “Hood” asked his people –who had deviated from the procedure of Heaven so it didn’t rain for three years till they were about to perish- to ask Allah’s forgiveness for their past sins and to repent to Him by correcting their course and arranging their relation with Allah (be exalted) then their relation with nature will be organized and it will grant them with rain and benevolences he said to them: “And, O my people’ ask forgiveness of your Lord, then turn to Him, He will send on you clouds pouring down abundance of rain and add strength to your strength, and don’t turn back guilty” [^23]
So, real worship should be to Allah alone, fear should be of guilts, which cause Allah’s rage and revenge, so He uses nature as a means to punishment, as Allah Has drowned pheroons into the sea, send the destructive wind which damaged the people of Aaad. Hence we find that most of the punishments which afflicted infidels had been fulfilled by the powers of nature which reveals to us the correlative relationship between Man an nature,
in this concern Imam Al-Baaqir says: “we have found in the Book of the prophet (S.W.A)…when people abstain from praying “Zakaat” earth abstains its blessings such as plants, fruits and metals”[^24] His son Imam Alsaadiq (A.S.) says “when adultry spreads out earthquicks appear, when “Zakaat” is not paid cattle perish, when judges decide unjustly rain doesn’t come down from heaven…”[^25]
In brief, human fear must coneentrate on sins and misbehavior, which cause the destruction of societies and prevent heavenly blessings. As to the fear of nature, the belief that some of its phenomenons are evils which don’t harmonize with the worldly prevalent order firstly and with its wisdom and justice secondly it is originated from their limitedly narrow viewpoint to these issues.
Had they looked out to these incidents in the framework of the universal common order they would have given in to the idea that they are all good things. At the first look these incidents appear to be evil and disastrous, but he who contemplates deeply finds that they are motives for good and reform and they are not outside wisdom, justice and order.
Dealing in detail with the subject of the philosophy of evils and aflictions in this world is related to the (Scholastic theology) but what is connected with our research we reemphasize that the Islamic ideology has restored the molding of man’s mind towards the nature around him in a way which makes him much freer, more interacting and feeling in peace with it.
Fourthly: releasing Man from legendries and myths in belief and behavior in order to eradicate the fantastic deterrents, which prevent the right use of the energy the mind. Man in the pre-Islamic era e.g. had been regarding a good or a bad omen of the movements of bird, so he went optimistically to do some thing when bird takes the right direction and retreats and gives up the work when the bird takes the left direction. The class of parsons and diviners occupy the position of forefront in the social ladder and were cheating people by claiming that they know the unseen.
Telling bad omen were chaining people with the ropes of fanaticism and prevent them from work and traveling, also the use of “azlaam” i-e if one wants to do something he takes three arrows writing on one of them (do) on the second (do not do) and leave the third free he stretches his hand to take one of them,
if the first comes out he advances to his work, when he hits the second he does not do this work if the third comes out he repeats once again! Magic also has been prevalent among people foreshadowing a serious evil, the Islamic ideology made war against these phenomenons, it has been a cause for opening the minds and elevation of spirits and to bring people out of the darknesses of illusion and legendry to the light of science and truth.
The prophet (S.W.A.) said: “ he is not of us who sees an evil omen or is told about evil omen, and he who foretold or was foretold, or made magic or was made to him[^26]. He (A.S.) also said that He who gives up his work because of bad omen is a polytheist. [^27]
Al Imam Alsaadiq (A.S.) said: “ bad omen is as you consider, if you regard it unimportant it becomes as such, if you regard it serious it becomes as such, if you regard it nothing it becomes as such too” [^28]
From another side the Islamic ideology released the Moslem’s mind from the deductions of soothsayers as it considered a soothsayer like a foreteller, both of them try to restrict Man’s movement in life and to cheat his mind.
It is related from Abdilmalik bin A’ayon that he said: I said to Abiabdula (A.S.): I have been afflicted with this science-he means divinations- so when I look in the horoscope and I see the horoscope of evil I sit down and don’t go and if I see the horoscope of good luck I go to fulfill what I need he said to me: do you gain your need? I said: yes he said to me burn your books”[^29]
We must state here that the Divine school of Ahlilbait (A.S.) does not criticize the stars as a natural science Man can discover by it the features of the sky which shadows him in order to discover through that the greatness of the creator, but it finds fault with these who claim that they know through them (stars) the unseen future.
One of the witnesses which reflects Ahlilbait’s striving to release Moslem human being from the habit of soothtelling which remained to a late centuries, what Ameeralmu’amineen said to some of his companions when he decided to setup to confront “Khawaarij” as it is said to him! If you setup in this time we fear that you will miss your aim through the science of stars.
He (A.S.) said: “Do you claim that you guide to the hour where every one set up would avoid evil? And you threaten of the hour where every one sets up would suffer damage? He who believes you, then, has accused Qur’an of telling lie and has dispensed with depending on Allah in getting the wanted and getting of evil…. Then he (A.S.) turned to people and said:
O people’ beware of knowing the science of sooth telling except what is used to know the directions in land and sea- till he said to them- go on depending on Allah (be exalted). [^30]